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The same could be said in almost every aspect of life. Complexity and chaos, advancements and disintegration mark the organizational climate in almost every sector and as such call for changes in leadership skills, competencies and capacities Denis et al.

Not only have we shifted from a view of leader as sole or unitary actor to a team or community centered view of leadership Dentico, , but the social and economic times of most organizations have produced a demand for skills and abilities that are as complex as the situations in which they are found.

Leadership is no longer viewed as one-dimensional and is even seen more as a process of developing, using a variety of skills and competencies rather than a position or role Avolio, Cognitive theorists would suggest that inherent in the notion of skills or competencies are a combination of learning about something and the learning to do something.

Knowledge conjoined with performance based on that knowledge develops skill or capacity. Leadership literature often confuses these two interdependent aspects of skills and competencies, developing lists of skills as knowledge at times and skills as performative action at times.

Clearly both need to be considered in formulating a full understanding of leadership. We will consider both of these aspects in the breadth of lists being suggested from many directions.

Managerial skills seen as a subset of leadership skills and capacities may help to clarify this confusion.

Because of this inter-reliance in skills, both notions of leadership and management will be considered in the literature and research review following.

These roles are often ignored when leadership characteristics or competencies are identified. This useful approach to leadership acknowledges three elements: leaders exert influence; others accept that influence; and change or performance is produced.

That list included eleven items: 1. Informing 2. Consulting and Delegating 3. Planning and Organizing 4.

Problem Solving 5. Clarifying Roles and Objectives 6. Monitoring Operations and Environment 7. Motivating 8. Supporting and Mentoring Managing Conflict and Team Building These competencies were viewed as crucial in cross-functional team work: analytical, collaborative, communication, entrepreneurial, initiative, integrative, interpersonal, and managerial.

Public Health Leadership Competency Frameworks In specific literature pertaining to public health or health leadership competencies, several lists of competencies emerge.

In a survey of thirty-eight health leadership officers using 78 identified knowledge, skills, and abilities that a new health officer might require, five competence areas were suggested: 1 public image or skills related to working with the community; 2 policy development and program planning; 3 interpersonal skills; 4 agency management; and 5 legal issues.

With no noticeable differences by respondent type and region the nearly respondents confirmed six transformational leadership competencies and values as: 1.

Mastering Change: the capacity to help organizations view change as an opportunity for new alternatives and calculated risk-taking 2.

Systems Thinking: the capacity to understand inter-relationships and patterns in solving complex problems 3. Shared Vision: the capacity to craft a collective organizational vision of the future 4.

Continuous Quality Improvement: the capacity to engender a neversatisfied attitude, which supports an on-going process to improve clinical and service outcomes 5.

Redefining Healthcare: the capacity to focus on healing, changing lifestyles and the holistic interplay of mind, body, spirit 6.

The report went on to expose leadership capacities in mastering change, systems thinking and continuous quality improvement as posing the greatest gap between current practices and future needs.

The above list also dove-tailed with another discussion conducted during a Health Resources and Services Administration forum that focused on broad competencies of public health administrators as seen by public health practitioSection 2: Skills, Competencies, and Capacities 17 ners and faculty Bureau of Health Professions, Ten areas of competency emerged, including policy analysis-strategic planning, communication skills, team leadership, financial management, human resource management, program planning and administration, organizational management-position, cultural competency, basic health sciences and political analysis.

These ten competencies are reaffirmed as they appear in various forms throughout the literature.

Perhaps one of the most recent and well-respected approaches to leadership in the public health realm is the Leadership Competency Framework, formulated by the collaborative entities within the National Public Health Leadership Development Network NLN Wright et al.

This consortium of institutions, through reviews of current literature and several existing health leadership competency frameworks, sought to develop a comprehensive framework that would provide direction for public health leadership curriculum design and subsequent evaluative processes.

Ultimately this framework was intended to provide standards for professional development and measurement of performance of leadership and consequent services for public health.

Four leadership practice categories with corresponding competencies were articulated as: 1. Within each of the four competency focused categories, there are extensive lists of specific skills and capacities that give depth to each category.

Another public health competencies framework that must be considered is that developed by Sorenson, Bialek and Steele.

Within each sphere, particular related competencies flesh out the depth of expectations of the leader. Each of these, along with those from the other frameworks, will be integrated when appropriate into the competency specific discussion following.

Clearly, the approaches to identifying and measuring skills and competencies relevant to effective leadership results in various categorization of capacities.

Perhaps instead, we ought to consider them as helpful angles of approach to a multi-faceted context of similar entities. With that in mind, let us consider some of the more commonly cited skills, competencies and capacities that emerge from the literature.

Visionary leadership is seen as future focused. It involves possibility and hopeful thinking which expands the boundaries of past or current thinking.

Not only does it move beyond current thinking and practice, it understands the obstacles embedded in current contexts that call for new vision.

This often takes the form of mission or goal statements. In relation to vision formation, Bryman suggests four other leadership related skills needed: communicating the vision, organizational empowerment of the vision, the ability to align the organizational culture with the vision and nurturing trust as change is implemented , pp.

As the challenges of new public health landscapes involving globalization, financial strain, shifting power bases, and serious demands on an already stressed system present themselves, visionary leadership will be in high demand.

Determining which values and purposes to preserve and which to change will be yet another navigational tool required by the health care leader.

This gives rise to two other competencies: the capacity to manage change and collaborate. Managing Change Crisis and change have been present in the field of public health for a long time Misener et al.

Change often creates ambiguous situations as well as clouded goals, structures and lines of authority. In a case study looking at the process of change in a Canadian hospital, five propositions P1-P5 were summarized that suggest leadership strategies, understanding and competencies to plot a course through the change process: Section 2: Skills, Competencies, and Capacities 19 P1: Substantive change under ambiguity requires collaboration: more specifically the formation of a tightly knit group of actors that can perform specialized differentiated, and complementary roles in moving the organization in desired direction.

P2: Strategic change under ambiguities is likely to proceed in a cyclical pattern in which periods of substantive change alternate with periods of political realignment.

P3: Collective leadership roles are constructed and reconstructed over time through the credibility of enhancing and credibility draining consequences of various organizational tactics.

P4: Under ambiguity leaders may build influence and momentum for change through symbolic management tactics in which openings in the environment are identified and reinterpreted as strategic opportunities.

Collaboration Competencies An articulated assumption and finding in much of the literature regarding vision formation and management of change is the capacity for collaboration.

Leaders in all spheres are being required to think and work across boundaries Kanter, ; Liang et al. The kinds of skills called upon in this process included: Keeping stakeholders at the table through periods of frustration and skepticism, acknowledging small successes along the way, helping stakeholders negotiate difficult points, and enforcing group norms and ground rules p.

Franklin and Streeter conducted an overview of the process required in various approaches to linking public schools with human service agencies.

Each approach necessitated more complex leadership skills with increasing impact on the broader constituencies as collaboration increased.

Collaboration demands a leadership capacity to shift from these vertical or hierarchical relationships of influence to horizontal power sharing Kanter, ; Gustafson, ; Avery, In a survey of healthcare executive leaders compared to a database of 7, executives in other fields around the world, consensus leadership in health care is on the rise Lentz, Empowerment and power sharing are central to collaborative work.

Not only is power generated and shared among participants within the collaboration, but influence is generated over larger spheres in a community, giving collaborations larger capacities for change Fawcett et al In a study on collaboration between school principals and special education directors as they cared for special needs students, collaboration called upon a variety of perspective-taking skills Lehner, Cooperative and interorganizational alliances are being called for like never before in health services Zukerman, Kaluzny, and Ricketts, ; Linial, At the core of these collaborative competencies is another set of skills, that of communication.

Not only are face-to face interactions increased in the new world of collaboration, but the need for diverse communicational skills of its leaders, from writing to public speaking to group dialogue to interpersonal communication.

With the challenging venue of collaboration, communication of information between professions was seen as crucial to the care provided.

The capacity to understand various styles and Section 2: Skills, Competencies, and Capacities 21 expectations for communication between professions will allow leaders to find ways to overcome inherent obstacles.

Both the broader leadership literature and health focused literature calls for a wide array of communicational competencies and capacities needed.

While there are many other factors that contribute to making a team highly effective LaFasto and Larson, , leadership is certainly one of the more important factors.

A foundational knowledge about teams is crucial for team leadership. Having a capacity to think from a team-based focus for operation as opposed to individual centered focus is key Misener et al.

Beck and Yaeger suggest the capacities of clarifying goals, strategies and roles to accomplish goals are important in the team leadership process It is clear that identifying team oriented structures and creating a vision to work together is fundamental for team effectiveness Wright et al, ; LaFasto and Larson, Many of the skills required for collaborative efforts appear in the team literature, albeit more focused on facilitative leadership skills.

Facilitation skills seem the most common thread. In the edited work on team facilitation by Frey , competencies in leading group problem solving, decision-making, constructive dialogue and conflict resolution, and empowerment strategies expand the list.

Facilitation skills tie communication back into the equation and we find a loop between team leadership skills, collaboration skills and communication skills that blur the categories.

In the current literature focused on facilitation and the work of facilitators, there is a wide categorization of roles, tasks, skills and characteristics identified.

Some suggest that these skills are more internal, involving self awareness, role understanding, and analytical or thinking skills Warehay, , while others focus on external and communicational skills related to keeping ground rules, negotiating conflict, and clarifying tasks Jones et al.

Still others suggest logistical skills such as agenda development, room set-up and reporting that are necessary in the skill-set of a facilitator Burns, ; Niederman, ; and Smith, Strongly related to the skill set of managing change, this capacity allows leaders to see the bigger picture and structures of organizations or interorganization processes.

It allows a leader to understand how changing one part can affect another. Another set of management skills cited is that of organization.

Not only organizing ideas and resources but people with whom you need to work Zaleznik, ; Guarriello, ; Greene, ; Guthrie, Sometimes the management of people can be problematic for leaders because of resistant forces within the group itself, such as physicians.

Guthrie , p. At times these skills will require the capacity to manage through new informational systems and technological resources Misener et al.

The above discussion of collaboration is then further defined and focused for us as competencies in advocacy, community organizing, community education and marketing are called forth.

Fawcett et al. Finding, involving and sustaining stakeholders through the various levels of the community and the institutions with which serve it is no small capacity Fawcett et al.

In addition to understanding and developing skills in the political, often legislative arena of human services, public health leaders are also being called upon to understand the legal and regulatory issues that govern healthcare Doody, He suggests that leadership issues need to be addressed in order to expedite change, cooperation and collaboration.

This capacity to step-aside is one of the more rare abilities suggested in the literature Kazemek, ; Naughton, This capacity involves multifarious skills including self-reflection, self-knowledge, and an attitude or willingness to learn.

In a survey conducted by Bennis and Nanus on 90 leaders regarding personal qualities they thought were required to lead their organizations it was found that the leaders, never mentioned charisma, or dressing for success, or time management, or any of the other glib formulas that pass for wisdom in the popular press.

Instead, they talked about persistence and self-knowledge; about willingness to take risks and accept losses; about commitment, consistency and challenge.

But, above all, they talked about learning p. Naughton suggested twelve renewal tools for leadership, of which the capacity to set goals for personal development and learning was one.

Hern encourages leaders to think of renewal not only for their organization but personal and professional life. Hotko and Van Dyke suggest that peer reviews when done well provide a rich source for personal reflection and evaluation.

All of these notions are meant to nurture the capacity to learn, the ability to self-reflect and the capacity to be held accountable. Two more aspects of leadership capacities are worth noting: spirituality and humor.

The first concerns spirituality. The second capacity concerns humor. The growing list of skills, competencies and capacities required of leaders, particularly in the public health realm, can be overwhelming Ross, Do we expect too much?

The question itself turns us back to a critical capacity for leadership today: collaboration.

With the shared knowledge, skills and capacities of many leaders, as suggested by Ross , an optimistic view is possible.

To identify best practices, we looked at articles focusing on a wide variety of venues, including public health agencies, a collaboration among 40 northern New England hospitals, k education and higher education, the politics of health care reform, social change coalitions in metropolitan New York and New Jersey, and a number of non-profit agencies.

As a beginning point, these studies provide feedback that at a gross level point to best practices for collaboration facilitators.

A literature review conducted by Bland et al. The internal elements that ranked high were: relate process, structure, strategies, resources, decision making, commitment and leadership.

Characteristics chosen by coalition leaders that they determined important for successful leadership were associated with specific knowledge, skills and values.

According to this study, successful coalition leaders recognize the critical need for coalition members to build personal relationships, and assist them in doing so.

Demonstrating respect for others, a willingness to share, and modesty are also mentioned. In an insightful article that describes the processes and leadership involved in successful collaborations for health care reform in seven states, outstanding characteristics of the key entrepreneurial leaders 1are described Paul-Shaheen, According to the author, entrepreneurial leaders are those who introduce innovation to society.

Personal qualities include: having a passion for change; being a political pragmatist; holding key positions of power; understanding the health care issues involved in the debate; and being a master of political process.

These characteristics are seen as a powerful counterweight to both the structural inertia built into legislative process and to the influence of special interest groups opposed to health care reform.

In the literature review by Bland et al , written to investigate a universitycommunity collaborations, sixteen behaviors of effective leaders were categorized into four areas.

Secondly, effective leaders use behaviors in the categories other than Organizational Power, more often than less effective leaders.

The last significant finding was that successful projects have a consistent, identifiable project leader or a small set of leaders, as opposed to self-managed or leaderless collaborative groups.

In order to discuss the conclusions of these articles more specifically, we have categorized leadership behaviors into four areas. They are: 1.

Communication Skills 2. Building Relationships 3. Developing a Shared Vision and Inclusion 4. Recognizing Crisis as Opportunity Communication Skills Nearly every article reviewed, mentions the importance of effective communication skills.

Whether we speak of active listening on the part of the leader, being able to effectively mobilize volunteers to write letters or call legislators, appear at demonstrations, or frame the ways in which complex issues are presented to the media, sophisticated communication skills are strong predictors of effective leadership Batalden et al.

Leaders who facilitate listening and communication among partners in collaborations are especially valued.

Bland et al. Of specific focus, are those behaviors that enhance trust and promote respect. Nelson et al. Batalden et al.

Recognizing that an organization has not failed if it does not accomplish everything it set out to do is a particular example used.

When Bland and her co-workers asked leaders of successful university collaborations what the most significant challenges they faced were, they consistently responded with 1 keeping everyone focused; 2 keeping the group intact 3 building trust 4 managing conflict, 5 interesting public policymakers in their project and 6 acquiring the resources to maintain the project.

It is clear that communication plays a major role in every one of these challenges. When asked to comment on the skills required to perform as an effective leader of a collaboration, and how this differs from the usual role they played in their profession or business, a very telling response ensued: [It calls] for skills that are polar opposites.

Flexibility in order not to be rigid and reject ideas. Concreteness in order to set up structures to allow collaboration to happen p.

One specific set of communication skills involves the leader and the media. Paul-Shaheen points out that most citizens get their information about public policy from a variety of media sources.

The framing of issues for the media has emerged as a crucial skill for effective leaders. Information surrounding public issues is often dense and technical, necessitating the development of a human face p in an effort to interest the media and the public.

Human interest stories often help redefine issues and set the stage for major public policy change.

Gatekeeping has long been a major role of the media. Acquiring supportive public opinion cannot happen if the press has not permitted an issue to emerge.

Maintaining a mutually beneficial relationship with the media enhances community relations. Arkus, Thus, it is the responsibility of the leader to present complex and technical material in such a way as to interest members of the press and inform the public.

Issues presented in the media can arouse the public to the point that legislatures are required to act.

Understanding the roles of these entities requires knowing how to present the story as well as knowing to whom to present the story.

Building Relationships Understanding and presenting complex and technical material is one way that a leader demonstrates competence, but it has been noted repeatedly that understanding the affective side of process is critical to the development of successful collaborations.

Drawing in people and other organizations from other sectors is a resource for community connections Fitzgerald, In the case study of health care reform in seven states Paul-Shehaan, , periodic task forces were used to create additional opportunity for dialogue Section 3: Best Practices 29 p.

From these dialogues, incentives developed for finding accommodation, that is, common ground Simon, Another strategy used successfully in the case of health care reform was a process of member enlightenment.

The collaborative participants from both a wide range of legislators and others of diverse partisan, ideological, regional, and economic orientations were educated about the complexities of issues.

In their efforts to understand complex and technical material together, a common approach began to emerge and a sense of trust developed. Developing a Shared Vision and Inclusion The importance of a clear and shared vision is considered by many to be critical to a successful collaboration Leape et al.

Lack of a well-defined aim that is understood and jointly agreed upon can cause participants to drift and sometimes become preoccupied with extended data collection thus preventing a sense of success.

Leape et al. Presenting a vision that reflects the dominant values of the collaborative in story or symbol form has been shown to vary strongly correlated with positive outcomes.

In one study of successful school programs working with social services, the importance of building programs on mutuality in philosophy and standards Ascher, is mentioned.

Further, concentration on issues with mutual relevance, the setting of realistic time frames and the creation of clearly defined responsibilities and assignments is noted.

Building a shared vision requires infinite patience and skill. Fitzgerald notes that a leader should never underestimate the role of the community in identifying possible solutions to a problem.

Communicating that vision to others, especially in the effort to attract diverse partners necessitates active and consistent input from others as the vision changes and matures.

Likewise, an effective leader finds ways to keep goals visible and to communicate success Bland, Provision of means to quantify success is also deemed an important aspect of the shared vision.

From the case of a collaborative involving 40 New England hospitals working to reduce adverse drug events, to the university community collaborations set to change curricula, to the collaboration between schools and social services, the importance of including all stakeholders is repeatedly documented.

In the hospitals, it was the inclusion of a physician in addition to a pharmacist and nurse that made the teams more likely to be successful.

In the schools and social services 30 Section 3: Best Practices projects, it was the inclusion of parents as well as teachers that made the difference.

This study even mentions the hiring of a staff member from the local community as facilitator of the collaborative effort as a positive decision.

Including all stakeholders insures that no one feels left out, stimulating a backlash. Power as it is perceived is dynamite, unless handled equitably.

Mutual respect and trust is of considerable importance. They trusted the coalition p From the study of health reform in seven states Paul-Shaheen, , we learn some important lessons that include the role of stakeholders.

This author describes the coming together of a number of factors for successful health care reform: For in each of these states, a series of factors had come to the fore.

In each, the issues of rising health care cost and limited access achieved heightened public attention. In each, an entrepreneur or entrepreneurs emerged, willing to serve as a catalyst for and broker in the political process; new stakeholders identified health care as an issue and became engaged in the police debate; legislative leaders gave their tacit approval to undertaking such an effort; the public appeared supportive; and a key task force or commission had also developed a blueprint for action.

Recognizing Crisis as Opportunity Periodic windows of opportunity for change often occur in times of crisis.

Timing is critical to the establishment of a successful collaborative effort. A sense of urgency among stakeholders will create a momentum necessary to initiate action.

The use of multiple cognitive frames, especially a human resource frame, is recommended by Bland et al. Frames fall into four basic categories.

Structural emphasizing formal roles and relationships 2. Human Resource-oriented focusing on the needs of people Section 3: Best Practices 31 3.

Political centering on conflict arising over scarce resources 4. By viewing an organization, or collaboration of organizations, through multiple frames then, a leader may significantly increase his effectiveness, particularly in a changing environment that requires leaders to span several organizations.

Rosenthal and Mizrahi describe a similar idea about successful coalition leadership. They tell us that the leader must manage three critical levels simultaneously.

Sustaining movement toward external goals by influencing social change targets 2. Maintaining internal relations among the core organizational representatives 3.

Developing trust with, accountability to, and contributions from, the coalition membership base p. Summary Finally, in a study that addressed successful interaction among members of the vaccine research and development network in which case studies were reviewed for common themes, a simple but succinct idea emerges.

However, what is equally important to the process of collaboration is the leadership necessary to promote and sustain it. Lambert suggests we change our view of leadership as a noun to think, instead, of leadership as a verb.

In this section, we endeavor to uncover the conditions surrounding collaborative leadership. We will examine and discuss three main questions.

First, we will ask: what are the conditions in an organization that promote collaborative leadership, as well as those which may inhibit or hinder collaborative leadership?

Second, we will address whether such conditions differ for urban versus rural settings and organizations. Third, we will revisit the central question: what are the characteristics of a successful collaborative leader?

In addition to addressing these three main questions utilizing current research, we will provide case studies that illustrate and embody the findings being presented.

Conditions for Collaborative Leadership The leaders of most organizations today would most likely agree that collaborative leadership is an important aspect of success.

But, what conditions within the organization are most likely to make this notion a reality? In order to begin the process of defining the conditions that surround collaborative leadership, we must continue to clarify the idea itself.

Interestingly however, this has proved to be problematic. Many authors and researchers offer definitions and opinions of what collaboration is.

Goldman et al. And, as we will discuss in detail in a later section, many authors offer explanations for what leadership entails.

McCown et al. However, few researchers offer a definition for collaborative leadership in its own right.

Perhaps this is due to the fact that there is still some ambiguity regarding how to facilitate collaborative leadership.

The remainder of this section will examine the conditions that authors and researchers in this field have found to promote as well as hinder collaborative leadership.

The general consensus is that people must be empowered in order to collaborate successfully on any project. Thus, the very essence of collaborative leadership is knowing how to empower people and do it in such a way that is fruitful for the collaborative and the people involved.

No matter what type of collaborative one is examining, empowerment is the key. However, it is not as simple a notion as it may seem.

It is not enough to simply espouse the ideal of empowerment, an organization and its leaders must enact it. And what organizations and initiatives have found is true empowerment is fostered by collaborative leadership.

Rago supports this assertion. There are key components, then, that appear to be necessary in order for empowerment to exist.

There are certain actions that should be taken, certain conditions that should be met and certain criteria that must be established.

Based on the extant research, we have identified five integral components of empowerment. Assessment In order for collaborative leadership to take place, the leaders must be aware of the entire situation.

This comes, at least in part, through assessment. Assessment of the current situation leads to understanding of the collaborative and its stakeholders.

Empowerment of the stakeholders can only come through understanding their positions. Assessment of a situation may entail myriad processes, depending on the circumstances and goals involved.

Many researchers have offered their findings on the importance of assessment. Sometimes, assessment is necessary to gain deeper insight into the cultural aspects of a collaborative.

Mycek Section 4: Conditions and Contingencies 35 examined a local collaborative intended to bridge cultural gaps in a multi-cultural neighborhood between residents and local health care providers.

These findings support the importance of assessment of any collaborative initiative. It is the first step toward the overarching theme of all successful collaborative leadership - empowerment.

Vision The second component in the endeavor to promote empowerment, thus promoting collaborative leadership, is the need for leaders to provide a vision.

Virtually anyone engaged in any type of movement or organization would agree that one cannot move forward without a vision of the end result.

Some call this a vision, some call it a mission statement, some simply call it a goal. All would agree it is a necessity.

A good collaborative leader is someone who can provide, or assist in creating such a vision.

In turn, a strong vision promotes collaborative leadership. Shared Planning The third crucial component of empowerment is shared planning.

Shared planning of the process of the collaborative initiative is the step in which the relationship between leaders and stakeholders begin to solidify.

The act of shared planning contains two important components. Dementi-Leonard et al. Sweat discusses the importance of this notion in an urban revitalization project.

Carr examines community leadership and points out that failure to engage in shared planning could be detrimental to the goal of empowerment.

It is fair to say that one cannot underestimate the importance of involving the stakeholders in a collaborative through acknowledging their 36 Section 4: Conditions and Contingencies expertise and involving them in the planning process itself.

Shared planning fosters a team approach, one in which all members are vital. Clearly, researchers have found this to be of utmost value to the participants in any collaborative.

Considering that empowerment is the overarching goal, one cannot expect a participant who has had no input into the process to feel empowered to affect the outcome.

Providing Resources The fourth key component of empowerment is providing the necessary resources to those involved in the collaborative.

This is a crucial component in the discussion of factors that promote collaborative leadership because the very nature of empowerment dictates providing the necessary tools to those involved as part of motivating them to engage and fulfill their goals.

Often, organizations collaborate simply in order to pool their resources. More often, providing resources is more complex.

It can entail financial resources, to be sure. But, more often, it means providing education and skills training to stakeholders as a step in the journey towards empowerment.

Like shared planning, there are several elements that can come into play in the effort to provide resources, and the type of project may dictate which elements prove important to that particular collaborative.

For example, due to financial constraints, some collaboratives attempt to utilize existing resources for their projects.

This could be in the form of manpower or existing moneys. Other projects pledge to provide support to its stakeholders in any way necessary.

Dementi-Leonard discusses how a language revitalization project was able to do this while keeping the shared planning in effect. Friedell et al.

It is apparent that collaborative leadership cannot exist without the proper assessment, vision, shared planning, skills training, and resource provisions.

Research shows that all of these conditions are essential for the creation of a feeling of empowerment, which is the fundamental key to all collaborative leadership.

However, once a collaborative exhibits all of these characteristics and conditions, what is the function of the organization and its leaders?

How does one ensure that a collaborative project will sustain the momentum created? The answer to this is the last condition that promotes collaborative leadership: trust.

Trust is a key issue in promoting collaborative leadership. If an initiative has truly provided all of the positive elements discussed above, its leaders must trust in the members to utilize them to the utmost benefit of the collaborative.

Genuine empowerment cannot exist without trust in those who have been empowered. Impediments Given that there are definite, tangible conditions that promote collaborative leadership, it follows that there would be conditions that hinder it as well.

There are myriad possibilities of things that could impede collaborative leadership. However, based on the research, there are two conditions that are most common.

These are politics and differences among stakeholders. Politics The most common barrier to collaborative leadership seems to be politics.

Most collaborative movements need to deal with political agendas in one way or another, and almost all of them find this to be a difficulty in creating an environment of empowerment.

In other words, most collaboratives are formed in order to achieve something where they feel the government or society has fallen short.

And yet, ironically, they often must still deal with those very channels to achieve their goals. It is antithetical to empowerment to have to deal with bureaucracy.

Several researchers and authors support this feeling about politics and collaboration. Greenberg et al.

It is clear that dealing with politics can prove to be a daunting and seemingly unempowering task for a collaborative. The key to overcoming this impediment seems 38 Section 4: Conditions and Contingencies to be to maintain focus on empowerment.

Bureaucracy will not deter a truly empowered group of stakeholders. Differences Among Stakeholders To say that there will be differences among people involved in a collaborative movement may be obvious.

Yet, it is important to understand that differences must not only be acknowledged, they must be addressed. If they are not, they can pose a serious impediment to collaborative leadership.

There are virtually too many possible differences to address. They can range from differences in agendas, to different goals or visions, to differences in communication styles.

Like the other elements discussed above, each initiative will experience its own differences and must be examined individually. Iglitzin found that differing visions of the outcome of a project can be an impediment to collaborative leadership.

Differing agendas and visions of the process can also be affected by cultural differences. Differences in socioeconomic status can lead to differing leadership styles.

These can be counterproductive if not managed effectively and may hinder collaborative leadership.

As previously mentioned, there are numerous possibilities for conditions that could hinder collaborative leadership. Those mentioned here are seemingly the most common.

Similar to the answer to dealing with politics, empowerment is again the key to overcoming the possible negative effects of stakeholder differences.

Urban vs. Rural Collaboratives By and large, there seems to be little variation in the types of conditions that promote collaborative leadership in rural settings versus urban settings.

Like the participants themselves, there will always be some differences among initiatives no matter where they are. However, despite this assertion, there are some arguments for the case that rural initiatives face more difficulties, in the areas of service, collaboration, and leadership, than their urban counterparts.

Snavely et al. However, Sternweis and Wells maintain that these factors need not be detrimental to urban initiatives. Sweat points out that some urban projects face similar financial difficulties as many of their rural brethren.

However, a major advantage that urban initiatives have in this area is the increasing trend for local corporations to become involved and provide financial backing.

The existence of corporate-sponsored partnership in urban settings does seemingly give these collaboratives an advantage over those in rural settings.

Regardless of the setting, the real test of a collaborative leadership project is its ability to build capacity by empowering its stakeholders to achieve their vision.

The Collaborative Leader If the real test of a project is its ability to empower its participants, is there a certain type of person who is more likely than others to embrace a leadership role in this capacity?

Perhaps the most obvious answer to the question of what makes the best collaborative leader is someone who can promote all of the conditions previously discussed; someone who can undertake assessment, provide a vision, facilitate shared planning, provide resources and training, and trust their peers.

But what kind of person is most likely to do these things? Are there certain types of people more likely to engage in practices that facilitate collaborative leadership?

Indeed, their assumption is supported by some research. In a study conducted by Goldman and Kahnweiler, they found that successful collaborative leaders are more likely to have a high tolerance for role ambiguity and the stress related to it.

These characteristics are unquestionably commensurate with the conditions discussed previously that are most likely to promote collaborative leadership.

And we have examined whether these factors differ for certain settings and certain personality types. In this section, we will provide three case studies of actual collaborative movements.

These case studies will illustrate some of the aforementioned conditions and their outcomes. They will also underscore the importance of understanding the unique nature of each individual initiative.

Dementi-Leonard, , p. Representatives from the villages met in a series of meetings to discuss strategies to increase efforts of regenesis of the language, as well as educational and program support to maintain the efforts.

This case study strongly demonstrates several of the conditions that tend to promote and hinder collaborative leadership, including the need for assessment and shared planning, as well as cultural and political issues.

The project was led by the Tanana Chiefs Conference TCC , a consortium of 43 Athabascan tribal governments that acts as an agency to administer health and social service programs to native residents.

This was facilitated by creating a safe place in the meetings for community members to openly express ideas that would not have felt comfortable expressing in the presence of outsiders.

In other words, TCC did not seek initial input from community members and then disregard them once the project gained momentum. Their input was valued all the way through the process.

This, according to the members, led to empowerment. This case study demonstrates the importance for collaborative leaders to assess the past and current situations, facilitate shared planning by acknowledging and utilizing local expertise, and trusting in stakeholders to use their empowerment to work toward their goal.

Section 4: Conditions and Contingencies 41 Collaboration Among Rural Nonprofit Organizations in southern Illinois and the Mississippi Delta This case study presents a discussion of nonprofit organizations in southern Illinois and the Mississippi Delta region engaging in collaborative leadership efforts.

The conditions that the seven Illinois counties and six Delta region counties encounter include large expanses of land dotted with small towns that experience high rates of poverty and unemployment.

Yet, it is precisely these conditions that led the two regions to decide to collaborate. It was the lure of the pooling of their individually scarce resources that brought them together.

There could be some hesitancy for rural organizations to collaborate this way. After all, competition for already scarce resources is common in areas where the population is spread over a large geographic area.

However, these counties worked together to decide what resources to pool to the maximum benefit of everyone involved. These practices would be too expensive and time-consuming for poorly staffed, poorly financed organizations to handle.

Instead, they decided to focus on more attainable collaborative efforts such as case management referrals, community issue assessment, and community planning.

This case study proves that, while rural organizations may sometimes face unique impediments, they can still create conditions which foster collaborative leadership and are certainly not lacking in innovative, competent leaders to carry this out.

More importantly, this case study exhibits that these leaders exhibit a sense of understanding for the factors that promote collaborative leadership.

Principal Leadership and Community Participation This case study explores how the leadership styles engaged in by principals of four middle schools relates to the community participation at each school.

This is an especially interesting case study because it provides examples of the conditions that both promote and impede the collaborative leadership of the stakeholders involved in these community organizations.

In this instance, that essentially refers to parents as opposed to a broad spectrum of community members.

Also in contrast to his initial claim of parental inclusion, Mr. Yo Wick Middle School Ms. The first meeting, for example, had been billed on paper as being an opportunity for community members to choose representatives for the Parents Advisory Council PAC.

Once in attendance, however, parents were told right away that Ms. No discussion was allowed and no formal vote was taken.

At every meeting throughout the year, Ms. According to Carr, statements from some of the parents speak strongly to the feeling Ms.

The interplay among the parents, the PAC advisory board, and the principal was noticeably different from the two situations above.

Evidence of this is seen in the following comment from one parent. Merrimack Middle School Ms. She expressed a desire for a shared vision and for all parents to become actively involved in the creation process.

The members of the council did not promote individual agendas. Summary These case studies serve as compelling illustrations of how many of the conditions discussed in this section can promote and hinder the process of collaborative leadership.

Every initiative has unique circumstances, to be sure, and must be understood vis a vis its own circumstances. However, those interested in collaboration should be aware that politics and differences among stakeholders are likely to emerge as impediments to collaborative leadership.

On the other hand, assessment of the situation, creating a vision, shared planning of the process, provision of resources, and trust are conditions which are more likely to promote collaborative leadership.

All of these elements foster an environment of empowerment. Empowerment, as this section has shown, is the most crucial factor in the facilitation of collaborative leadership.

Perhaps Bowers illustrates this best with the following credo. The report urged for a more focused initiative to develop leaders, observing a present lack of direction and intentionality in public health leadership development.

But while the literature and training programs may still be limited, there are many other fields of leadership study that might provide models to inform, shape and build vision for public health leadership development.

Many strategies and techniques from other fields were also born out of a dearth of attention to succession planning and leadership training, for the leadership gap is not partial to public health alone.

The struggle for leaders is widespread, and often thought to be a result of the increase in demands and changing role or charcteristics of the leader today.

The shift from authority focused leadership to collaborative and team oriented leadership has not been met with adequate leadership education and training.

Not only do critical leadership positions need to be filled as vacancies and restructuring occur, but also leaders with capacities and characteristics to meet the current challenges and innovations in the work place are essential.

In the field of public health, and particularly for those in the Turning Point Initiative, capacities for collaborative leadership development need to be in clear focus of any development plan They surveyed 35 organizations that had well developed leadership development programs.

They further narrowed the study to six organizations with the most innovative or strong leadership development processes.

Ashby summarizes their key findings of best practices in leadership development programs through the following highlights: 46 Section 5: Leadership Development Strategies and Methods 1.

Leadership development does not stand alone. It must be aligned to the overall strategy of the organization.

Senior-level executives with extensive line experience must be involved in the design of the leadership development program.

A model of leadership competencies is developed which is consistent throughout the organization and reflects the values of the organization.

Best-practice organizations develop their own leaders rather than recruit them from other companies. Action, not knowledge, is the goal of best-practice leadership development.

The leadership development process is a symbiotic tool of effective leadership. Successful programs are continuously assessed.

These best practices give guidance to approaches and strategies for leadership development in public health.

The first question is outcome and skills oriented and taken up in another section, but the latter is important to articulate before a review of possible strategies and techniques is relevant.

During a discussion of the Turning Point Leadership Development Plan experts in collaborative leadership development suggested three levels to consider in nurturing sustainable leadership.

Level one is focused on the individual and the leadership capacity developed from within. The second level is focused on individuals working within an organizational context.

The third level broadens to the community. Collaboration becomes critical at this point as community members begin working across boundaries to stimulate change and solve problems.

The development process for collaborative leadership in public health must consider various venues that allow for an ever-expanding sphere of influence from the individual leader, to many leaders within an organization, to the broad leadership available in communities.

Adults as learners present unique challenges to any development process or program. Renowned education theorist Malcolm Knowles, who is considered by many as the father of adult education, provides several key principles for training or developing a learning process for adults.

Five foundational principles of his theory are considered essential for a vital learning experience Knowles, ; Adams, They can be summarized as: 1.

Adult learning should be an active, not passive endeavor. While lecture is important for information dissemination, adults tend to remember only 10 percent of what they hear Adams, Add visual and the learning jumps to 50 percent.

Add discussion and retention increases to 70 percent. Combine demonstration and visual with auditory and learning often increases to 90 percent.

Therefore, methods that provide for active participation will increase learning in adults. Section 5: Leadership Development Strategies and Methods 47 2.

The adult learner must relate to the training and the training to the learner. Adults bring a breadth of life experience to their learning that provides a richer frame of reference.

Training and development of adults will be more effective when this is taken into consideration. Children Thurles. So what reduced to such an under 12 half fare.

Return train had been proextent that it was not from Fethard will leave at 6. During the summer, special trains operated to all the major GAA fixtures and to Tramore.

On Carnival Sunday a special train operated from Waterford and often this train had to return to Clonmel to pick up more passengers such was the demand.

Special trains operated from Waterford to the Kilnockin Races. On fair days up to four special trains conveyed cattle to Waterford and Dublin for export.

During the winter months the line was excep18 train. A bus was fitted to run on the rails and even this could not save the line.

On 26th March the Clonmel to Thurles branch line closed, as did many such branch lines in the 60s. It was in existence for just over 90 years and in its time provided an excellent service for the people of South Tipperary.

I remember the railway fondly. I especially remember the fair days, the GAA trains, the Fethard Carnival trains and loading beet at the station.

I used call to the station very often to collect the films for the cinema and bring them back the following day. Pushing that cart up to the station was no easy task.

You did, however, get in to see the pictures for nothing so that was reward enough! Paddy would take on about ten of us depending on the number of pigs he had bought.

The train used to leave the station at 6. Usually there would be up to 60 or 70 pigs. What a job to control those pigs!

Out under the archway and on to the Main Street and then the fun started. All the time Paddy would be looking at his pocket watch worrying about his deadline.

We were always in time for the train and our reward an English trupenny bit! The labourers were worthy of their hire! Bro Paul Brennan, a past teacher of mine from the Patrician School on the Rocklow Road, penned an article of his work and experience since moving to Kenya almost 30 years ago.

Towards the end of the piece he reminisced about some of the students he had taught in Fethard and mentioned a few names, among them mine.

I wondered how he remembered me, as it was over 40 years since we last met. It must have been my red hair. The thought of visiting Africa was further fuelled by a chance meeting with Davie Fitzgerald at the Fleadh Cheoil in Clonmel.

I rang him the next day, we had a brief chat and exchanged contact details as he was heading to the airport to return to Kenya. As the plane made its decent, little thoughts started to invade my mind.

Would this adventure be a success? Would I know Paul at the airport? Would he still be the same man who had made such an impact on my school days and on the parish in the early 60s.

There he stood larger than life, older admittedly, just like us all. White haired instead of black, but still the same Paul, with the exact same mannerism, smile and sense of humour.

The memories came flooding back. The meeting was a very special moment. Paul was accompanied by his fellow Patrician Brothers, David and Andrew.

After a brief sojourn around Nairobi, where we planned to return, we headed for Mombasa on the Indian Ocean.

Five people in a Suzuki Jeep, which miraculously managed to stay in one piece for the three-week duration. The km journey takes about 12 hours.

The road was in very poor condition and littered with potholes but the trip was full of excitement for us.

Hordes of people walking, walking everywhere. School children head to school very early in the morning with happy smiling faces even though they survive on one bowl of maize per day.

Shanty towns where every day is market day and every resident is a trader. Incessant charcoal burning has led to a major deforestation problem.

The thought struck me that more damage could be done to the environment here in one day than we in Ireland could do in 10 years.

The old trucks coming out of the ports of Mombasa and tackling the long steady climb to ten or twelve thousand feet, belch out huge palls of black fumes.

However, to balance that they certainly make better use of the bicycle than we do. Some of the loads which they manage to get onto a bicycle are truly amazing.

Mombasa, a bustling town, was a perfect place to kick off our adventure. We swam in the Indian Ocean, sampled the local food and wine and took in all the tourist spots.

Paul was in his element. Using what Swahili he knew to best effect, the locals were amused when he could identify what tribes they were from.

He took great pride in telling them that he was a teacher from St. We asked if he could take us into Kibera the following morning and he agreed.

The journey through the township will live in my memory forever. Narrow dirt streets with mud shanty dwellings, thousands of people existing on morsels, children playing on open sewers with distant looks in their eyes, with Aids and malaria a daily companion.

I thought, can this be we are living in! The task is monumental with abysmal support from the so-called developed world.

But everyday is a day better. On Sunday we headed for the high country, Eldoret, in western Kenya, where Paul has lived and worked for some 30 years.

A long but pleasant journey with much better infrastructure. The further up the Rift Valley we went, and the higher we drove, the more fertile it became.

Magnificent lush valleys and beautiful scenery rolled out in front of us with forestry now becoming the dominant vegetation.

We crossed the Equator on route where at noon you can stand on your own shadow. Eldoret was like home from home.

Paul knows everyone and is as popular around town as he was in Fethard. Although Paul has retired from teaching for five years now, he is typical of the man, busier than ever.

He has just opened a new primary school and dispensary in Kabongo a place that would make Boolagh North look like the centre of the universe.

He is now working hard on building a secondary school so that the children will have a place to advance their studies.

I had forgotten how driven he is. How else could a young man from Nobber, who knew nothing about hurling, come to Fethard where we knew even less, and inspire us to a Munster Colleges title in One little girl said, the highlight of the trip.

Margaret I did. I know he had her primed loved the place, she had lots of before we got there. Our trip to books, copies and pencils which she Kabonga was complete when John gave to the teachers to give to the the caretaker invited us to his home children, who may not have been to meet his wife and three lovely chilable to afford even a pencil.

The joy dren. We were honoured to be guests on their smiling faces after getting in his house. Leading the way in academic and interested in the dispensary and had sporting achievements for years, it is, long chats with Sylvia, the local without doubt, one of the bestnurse, as she held her daily clinic.

They presented very useful equipWe have sat and watched the ment to the clinic that was very much Kenyans massing towards the front, appreciated.

You can be sure that many of them have come through this school. Members of the Kalenjin tribe such as Wilson Kipketer, Mike Boit, Wilson Boit, the Cheruyet twins and many more too numerous to mention have graced the athletic tracks of the world for decades.

Add that to the several national basketball titles and you get some idea of the progress of a small school built forty years ago in the middle of nowhere.

We spent a lovely evening with Paul, Colm and friends at the Keiyo View where we sat round the fire and had songs and stories from way back when.

It was interesting if only to see how domesticated wild animals can become if they are born and live with safari jeeps and minibuses looking at them all the time.

One wonders what the noble Masai People make of advancing civilisation which takes their grazing land in order to preserve wild life.

Bro Paul is visiting Ireland in Our team photograph still hangs proudly in his office. Thanks Paul for a memorable holiday, we will be back.

This year our computer system is being upgraded which will increase speed and efficiency. At our annual general meeting in December, two new directors were elected to the board.

Johnathon Gilpin was elected public relations officer for Chapter Our next A. M will be held in early December and we are First Steps Playgroup I t was another busy year for First Steps Playschool and great to welcome back old faces along with the new boys and girls who had not been before.

Our thanks to the Dental Department for visiting the Playschool again and involving us in their dental survey. The children were all presented with toothbrushes and given a small demonstration on how to clean their teeth.

Our Xmas party was a great success and thanks to Santa for coming to our party and giving the children their presents. Our annual summer outing to Planet Playground was a huge suc- hoping for a representative attendance.

R: Marian Gilpin. Without their valuable help and involvement these outings would not be possible. If you have any queries, please feel free to call in to the Tirry Centre, or you can contact me on Tel: or The family comprised of three girls and five boys, and only one, Paddy, the youngest, took the popular emigration trail from an Ireland which at that time had little to offer in the way of employment.

The Dalton clan were prudent and hardworking, and none, except Paddy in New York, ever married.

Two of the seven who remained at home had permanent positions. Snaring and lamping of rabbits supplemented their income. The family thrived on the principles of honesty and integrity, and whilst they had only been exposed to basic Primary schooling, they were great admirers of education and never lost an opportunity of instilling that principle into us as we grew up.

They were indeed brilliant role models for us as young kids. Rural Electricification had not yet reached us, so there was no distraction from TV.

Studying was accomplished by oil lamp, and this would be rushed to a conclusion when we would hear Mikey arrive in the 26 by Tom Burke kitchen, and take his place near the open fire.

Because he had first-hand knowledge of the source of this new phenomenon, namely the Shannon Scheme at Ardnacrusha. With the country in the grip of a severe economic depression, Mikey had left Fethard in September , travelled by train to Thurles, connected with the Dublin-Cork main line, and changed at Limerick Junction for the short shuttle service into Limerick.

There he signed on as a labourer for the next three years in a workforce that averaged 2,, but reached a maximum of 4, at one stage. A short strike at the beginning of the project over wage rates led to Limerick city workers being paid 50 shillings per week.

On the right is Parteen Weir which allowed water down the Shannon river modation of course.

The general feeling was that Siemens would have been willing to pay more, but were forbidden to do so by the Government, lest it have a destabilising effect in other areas.

Early in , the union agitation fizzled out and no further labour problems arose for the duration of the scheme.

There was a great variety of people working there, perhaps the most colourful being the group from the West of Ireland, who spoke only Connemara Irish.

Many of these had walked from home to get their jobs, as they did not have the bus fare. All the workers were men of incredible endurance, who thought nothing of working 70 hours per week.

Keeping clean was a problem; some would wade fully clothed into the Shannon, even in the depths of winter, and wash the dirt and grime from their clothes.

Others would gather around the temporary power station on a Sunday, where hot water was pumped out from the generator cooling system, and wash their clothes in that.

The meals served in the canteen consisted of half a pint of tea, ten ounces of bread and two ounces of butter for breakfast. Same was served for tea with addition of jam.

Lunch consisted of half a pound of lean meat, vegetables, and a pound and a half of potatoes, with two ounces of bread.

Because of the heavy work, the men felt the need to supplement these rations, and several fish and chip shops sprang up around the camp.

Whilst in docks to facilitate unloading of the Germany, he pursued with Siemens materials arriving from Germany, the concept of harnessing the with the power being supplied from Shannon and obtained the support the local Limerick City Electric Co.

Any materials weighThe contract, ing over 50 tons had signed between to be unloaded in Siemens and the Irish Dublin. To move government on 13th materials to August , was for Ardnacrusha, a rail5.

It is diffifrom the docks to cult for us now, 80 the site, the remains years on, to envisage of which are still visiwhat a gigantic engible today.

A portion of for local supply. The fall washing plant, a saw of the river, about mill, stores, and In the background, derricks for ft, would be used small laboratory, drop-hammers, used for boring to turn the generators holes to receive the blasting plus a plant for makat Ardnacrusha, with charges.

In the foreground, working oxygen which the diverted water ers used compressed air hammers was used for weld- to break up rock already blasted.

Shannon at Parteen. The Shannon Scheme was the Newspapers of the time, with a cerbrainchild of Dr. Thomas tain amount of journalistic hyperMcLaughlin, a lecturer in physics at bole, described it as the eighth wonUCG, supported by the Minister for der of the world.

McLaughlin obtained a ed a less adventurous firm than degree in electrical engineering in Siemens. Yet the Germans got most his spare time, and had gone to things right, and the complex probGermany to work for Siemens for a lems were solved efficiently and 28 expertly.

Unfortunately, they suffered a financial loss on the project, rumoured at one million Irish Pounds. However, they recouped their losses by using the techniques in other parts of the world to good effect.

What surprised us most of all about the information Mikey trotted out was that it requires 15 tons of water at a head of 95 feet to keep a 1Kw electric fire heated for one hour.

But if he stuck closely to the facts in recounting the technical data, I can see now that Mikey took great liberties in the stories of the people involved.

At that time, of course, we took everything as fact and marvelled at the following accounts. He spoke in his native tongue, and the assembled workers shook their heads to indicate their lack of understanding.

A colleague, who spoke both languages, communicated this to the engineer. The story I like best is one remembered by my brother, Denis.

Mikey recounted that he was alone digging a trench one day, when a German engineer approached him. Relations between the Irish and German workers were very good.

In July of , on a wet and windy day, President W. Cosgrave formally opened the intake gates at Parteen Weir, allowing the waters of the Shannon into the headrace for the first time.

The canal was not actually flooded by the President, as this process extended over several weeks to enable the engineers to test the embankments.

Both the Irish and German flags were flown at the Weir, and as the President operated the switch which opened the intake gates, sirens rang out and the No 2 Army Band played the national anthem.

Later, a group of German workers sang the German national anthem. On 21st Sept , electric current was first delivered into the National System, known at that time as the Leinster Loop, and Siemens made final handover of the project on 24th October On January 25th, , due to repairs and refurbishments at other plants, Ardnacrusha took its place as sole generating source for the National Network.

The dream of power from the Shannon had become a reality. The contribution of people of the calibre of Mikey Dalton from Fethard will never be forgotten.

Was Mikey present for the final events listed above? He had returned to Fethard some months earlier, despite according to himself repeated offers of extension to his contract, and considerable increase in remuneration.

Indeed, 30 with a twinkle in his eye, he went on to say that the Germans were more than anxious for him to take over as the first general manager of the famous Hydro Electric Plant, an offer which he believed was fully endorsed by the Irish Government.

To sing the story and praise the glory Of that wondrous project, the Shannon Scheme. The following article was supplied by Michael Hall, Kyle, Drangan.

The article was printed in the Fethard Notes section of The Nationalist on 26th Aug J ust some eight hundred yards, on an eminence, to the east of Fethard, is all that now remains of this once imposing edifice.

In Saturday's Nationalist was printed a sketch of the siege of Fethard by Cromwell, and its capitulation and article of surrender by Sir Pierce Butler, the governor.

In this state it remained until the 15th inst, when the west wing fell with a thunderous thud, making the stone resound in the streets of Fethard.

What wondrous mortar was used in the building of those old castles! The stones will smash before the mortar gives way. Pieces upwards of 30 tons were hurled a distance.

There was a large attendance and competitors came from all over the country to compete. It was a large, testing course and the windy weather made it difficult for some of the dogs to hear.

However, the rain stayed away and all enjoyed a good competition. Denis Birchill former National Champion came back to defend his claim on the cup after winning it last year and much to his delight he succeeded.

The organiser of the event, Dan Morrissey, would like to sincerely thank all those who worked at the venue or helped in any way to make the day a success.

O n a recent visit to Fethard, going down the old familiar tracks, my mind wandered back to life as it was in the s.

It was a simple, uncomplicated life. They say that what you never had you never miss. We were never bored and were content with the simple things.

One of the things that amazes me today when I speak to children in schools, is the amount of money that is spent on them.

They must have all the latest technological toys that cost an absolute fortune. The Game Boy has been overtaken by the Nintendo D.

Hold on, these have now been superseded by the Game Cube and X Box. This wonderful device not only plays games but also movies.

Our games were much simpler. Of course, we had our cards too. Having taken out the gold foil and inner card, we flattened the outer case.

We would kneel on the kerb and flick a card towards the wall. We were very proud of our cards, especially if you had a good collection of Gold Flake.

For some reason, we believed these were better gliders. This would be replaced, in time with the spinning top season.

That must have been soon after Easter, as we would use the colourful foil from the Easter Eggs to decorate the top.

We would have races down The Green with our tops, stopping now and then to replace the bootlace as it slipped from the stick.

To stop this from happening, we had to put a groove in the stick. We also had to keep the metal tip of the top nicely polished, to help its smooth travel.

Skipping was a very popular activity in the road. When I now think of the rhymes that went with the skipping, I feel that today, most of them would be politically incorrect.

Stamp collecting is also a rare hobby today. Is this just an Australian thing, or is it more widespread? I suppose with the coming of e-mails, less and less letters are sent.

Of course, we had the cinema, and the Sunday afternoon session was a must. Apart from the Batman trailer, there was also the main feature, where we would get glimpses of life in well-to-do American homes.

We became experts at making dry stonewalls. Fr Hogan found us building one day and came to the convent the next day to explain the dangers of building such high walls without support.

We just modified our designs. One day, Jo Barrett brought us a gift of crockery. We thought these were just wonderful.

As we grew older, our summer time activities changed. A daily visit to Newbridge was the highlight of the summer. I would bring back a bottle of water for my father from the Spring Well in the grounds of Grove House.

Was it always sunny and warm, or am I remembering life with rose coloured spectacles? Summer evenings were filled with games of rounders outside the Fitzgeralds.

These games became very competitive at times, with disagreements over boundaries, hits and misses. However, we liked the game too much to let our evening be spoiled, so we would agree to disagree and start again.

I often wonder how a window was never broken and why no one ever complained. Maybe they were protecting the windows!

Who knows? I only remember them encouraging us and cheering a good run. Are the children today missing out? I think so, but then this is a sign of the times.

They keep them safe by buying all these expensive games to keep them from getting bored. There are a lot more cars about, so games we played like skipping, spinning tops and rounders can no longer be played on the road.

The modern house has a very small backyard, so it is necessary for parents to take children to sporting venues for organised events.

We play every Wednesday evening in the Tirry Centre, which has long been the home of the bridge club. It is a warm and comfortable venue, convenient for everyone and we break for a cup of tea and a chat halfway through the evening.

Our numbers have dropped a little in the last few years, so we would welcome new members and encourage as many as possible to take up the game.

Both were long-standing members of the club. Although her illness prevented her from playing as much as she would have liked in recent years, she continued to support the club and played whenever her health permitted.

As a partner and an opponent, she was always courteous and encouraging - especially to beginners, and her unfailing good humour and courage were an inspiration to all.

Both will be sadly missed. John; Club Champions, for which the Hayes trophy is presented: Betty Walsh and Brigid Gorey; Individual Champion, for which the Dick Gorey Trophy was presented for the first time: Betty Walsh; The Suzanne Opray Trophy, presented for the first time this year as well, was won by Nell Broderick, as the player who reduced her handicap by the most during the year.

The free nett sub was won by Brigid Gorey and Betty Walsh. On 9th November we held a charity night and donated the proceeds for the evening to the National Council for the Blind.

Committee: Kay St. May we take this opportunity to wish all bridge players and nonbridge players!

Our club has gone from strength to strength over the years with an increase in members. We had an early start as we had to be in Clonfert by noon for a healing service.

We stopped off at the Templemore Arms for tea and scones en route. Clonfert was a very busy place with pilgrims from all over gathered there.

Having brought packed lunches with us we took our break at 1pm, 38 followed by mass at 3pm.

Dinner was very welcome that evening which we eat heartily. We all agreed that it was a very spiritual experience. Our monthly meetings were held as usual in the Tirry Community Centre which is an excellent venue, where all our needs are catered for.

This was preceded by mass in the Abbey Church. The committee worked very hard to make the day a memorable and enjoyable for everyone.

April saw us take a bus trip to Melleray, via the scenic route. It was followed by a lovely meal in Cahir House.

All were dressed for the occasion in their Easter bonnets. We held mass in the centre in May, which was followed by a lovely tea. June saw us take a trip to Adare, Co.

Adare is a charming and quaint place and we had a lovely meal in the Woodlands Hotel. The weather was beautiful. I recently had reason to have a small blemish removed from my forehead using 'liquid nitrogen'.

A three minute visit to the local doctor and a couple of zaps to the left temple did the trick, and I had to suffer a dull throbbing headache for only twenty-four hours before feeling back to normal.

However, I was amused a day or two later when a friend of mine reported that her young daughter had asked, on hearing my friend recount my experience, was the pain like 'brain freeze'?

And, when I heard the question, I had to admit that yes, that's exactly what it was like, brain freeze. You're probably wondering at this stage where this article is going and what it has to do with the Fethard Newsletter, but this above-mentioned episode jogged something in my memory, and gave me the subject for this article.

Going back more than thirty years, yes, I'm that old, I was one of very few children in Fethard who had the unique pleasure of tasting homemade ice-cream within a few seconds of it being made.

My grandfather, and later my father, used to make ice-cream for our shop and delicious ice-cream it was too. There were no invitations issued to come for ice-cream, it was a case of if you just happened to visit at the right time, you were the lucky one!

I remember being given a saucer and a spoon by my aunt and being sent to where the ice-cream production took place. I also remember being told not to get in the way or to make any noise.

I used to sit, quiet as a mouse, waiting on the steps of the stairs as work went on in the next room.

The icy steam used to rise out of the machine when the lids were lifted off, and also from the containers, they were so cold.

And then, a few seconds later, I'd be given a big dollop of vanilla ice-cream on the saucer and back I'd go to the stairs to eat it. The only thing is, the saucer used to get so cold that you couldn't hold it or keep in on your lap, and the spoon used to get too cold to hold or put into your mouth, and of course the ice-cream was sooooo cold you had to try and put it into your mouth and swallow it without any of it touching any of you don't try this at home!

Needless to say, I was told to wait a while and let it 'heat' opposite of all other meals, where you'd be told to let it cool , but also needless to say - I never did wait 'cos that ice cream was just too delicious to wait another second for it.

Inevitably, the brain freeze would follow on, but it was always worth it. I'm sure many of you readers will remember the ice-cream this article is about, it was on sale in the shop on Main Street for many years, until the machine broke down and the parts could not be sourced to repair it.

I'm still partial to a nice ice-cream, actually, all my family are, must be a legacy from those days waiting on the stairs. We even have our own name for it 'gingine'.

C oming into the early autumn months, as the evenings pull in and cooler temperatures return, oftentimes the discussion is, whether we had a good summer this year or not.

No matter what you believe, human nature will always come up with opposing views. Remember those three weeks together that the sun shone, temperatures rose and water was becoming scarce.

Is there a point to this discourse on the summer weather? Did anyone notice, that on every Wednesday night this summer rain was threatened or in fact it did rain, even though we may have had fine and bright days leading up to it, and indeed, on the following day.

That said, this past year for the new club has been bright, seeing a steady increase in members and we are now 22 strong.

A great boost this summer was acquiring new goal posts, thanks to the community field committee. There have been some very lively and very competitive games through the year and thankfully very few injuries apart from the odd bruised shin or ego.

Some people outside the club remain confused as to the whole idea behind it, probably because of its simplicity. We are, more or less, a sports and social club, playing soccer each Wednesday night from 8pm to 9.

No, we don't rush off to the pub straight afterwards, normally the pub gathering has been restricted to our AGMs, although a Christmas Party is definitely on the cards for this year.

After inspecting the village we went for a swim and had a few at the local hostelry. Afterwards we went for a stroll and found a Fun Fair, which we investigated.

I noticed a shooting gallery and went for a few shots. I duly returned and was given the gun, three pellets, and a target was put in place.

Having fired my three shots, the attendant said I had only two marks on my card scoring 20 and that was not good enough. One of my companions asked in an authoritative voice to see the card.

After a lengthy study he declared that two pellets had gone through the one mark and that I had scored The attendant accepted his decision and declared me the winner and presented me with the prize.

The locals were amazed and looked at me in a curious manner thinking I had accomplished the impossible! I could not disagree.

I did not feel that I had done the impossible but that was the decision. On Saturday we went to the golf club with the owner of our guesthouse.

This was my introduction to golf, which I continued to play for years, winning numerous prizes, and finishing on a seven handicap.

After lunch on Saturday, as we were about to settle our account, we were told by the proprietor that it would be much cheaper to stay until Tuesday.

August ended on Sunday, so we would be paying the September rate from then on. We stayed and on Sunday evening went out to welcome home the Wexford hurlers who had won the All-Ireland.

Nicky died a few short years afterwards. We left for home on Monday evening and were very lucky to make it, as we had a slow puncture and no spare, which was also punctured.

There was nothing left to do but share the prize, which was a set of two brown delph teapots with a blue band on the top.

The big one should have been given to the man who really won the competition by declaring that I had achieved the impossible.

But, if I gave him the big one he would realise that I did not agree with his verdict, so I kept the big one and we made our way home, delighted to be back in Fethard.

I liked to spend my leisure time in the open and engaged in shooting. On one occasion I shot a pheasant in Kilknockin. I hit it and it landed in the ditch about yards away.

My dog got on the trace and I heard her growling in the distance as she headed towards Rocklow. The bark got very low so I decided to move on.

On crossing the racecourse field, I looked back and saw my dog approaching with a pheasant in her mouth.

I gave Roxy a good pat on the head as she came up and dropped it at my feet. It was at least a half mile from where I first shot the bird.

The dog tracked the bird down and then brought it back overcoming several obstacles on the way. I shot a lot of wild birds afterwards, but never again did I shoot at the king of all birds, a cock pheasant.

A companion and I tried some grouse shooting on the bog and started from Laffansbridge. We found the going very rough with plenty of drains to be jumped.

After a time we noticed a green patch ahead of us. On coming up we saw a green island of about one hundred acres prime land.

It was really an amazing sight. When people lived in mud huts, he thought up a system for building stone houses and his system has been used down to the present day.

The system was: one stone on two and two on one for every second layer. If you notice a modern block built wall you will see the system in operation.

As well as being a participant in sport, I was also a keen spectator, interested in Gaelic, rugby and soccer. I also patronised horse racing and dog racing.

In Gaelic, I always had a ticket for the finals in the Cusack stand. There were five of us in the car. When we reached Kingsbridge one was snoring and the others followed him at intervals.

By the time we reached the Curragh all were snoring so I decided that I might as well join them and pulled well in off the road and joined the chorus.

I was awakened by one who yawned and stretched himself when he realised the car was stopped, thinking he was back in Fethard.

Of course, the whole town heard about our escapade. I patronised Landsdown Road for All Irelands and home internationals and always sat on a reserved seat at the wall in the half way line.

There were five rows of seats outside the wall on the half way and we stood at the back and just took a vacant seat when the match started.

We were never challenged because only half the seats were occupied. That is how I saw every match sitting in a reserved seat.

Aintree was another place I patronised, as it was the place to be on Grand National Day. We went over and I the local coursing meetings held told the man there was a runner from every week from October to near Clonmel and we were there to February.

We also kept a few racehorses and The official said he could not let us in had a few very good wins. We really were my favourite enjoyed the day hobbies but I was and I made my not lucky.

I could matches. Many of our varied, with as many downs as ups. I greyhounds made their way to tracks never made much money but always in England and Scotland.

It was very enjoyed myself. Of course, my life exciting and meant a lot of travelling. I regularly attended the almost 40 years of happiness.

I three-day national meeting in intend to continue to enjoy what is Clonmel every February, the Irish life, however long it will last.

How the academic year has flown, as we now progress into the autumn term of The last year was packed with activity and achievements.

There was a great variety of subject areas to visit and the PowerPoint demonstration on profiling past students was a very interesting feature.

Our 5th year science team featured in the top table 4th at the science quiz sponsored by Merck, Sharpe and Dohme.

The school Carol Service was held on Thursday 16th December. Gerry Horan, OSA celebrated the service.

The Minister for Education, Mary Hanafin, presented his award. Congratulations to John and Ms Walsh. Well done to Brian and Mr McGree.

On March 14th , the school tour to Barcelona departed, where a wonderful time, wonderful weather and wonderful memories were had by all.

In football the Huge support from the school travUnder boys won the county blitz, elled with the team and led by a conably captained by Christopher voy of cars, they arrived victorious Sheehan who has gone on to repreback to the Square on Friday sent Tipperary at underage level this evening.

This is the first flush of sucyear. In hurling the Unders were cess for this young team and great very unlucky to lose the blitz to credit is due to them and to their Thurles in Cahir.

Coolmore were victorious Stud sponsored over Tipperary V. McGrath and under spirited game of soccer. Hail to the the brilliant coaching of our P.

E victors and the vanquished! The boys Lastly congratulations to Carrie played some of the best volleyball Sweeney capt.

Well done and thanks to Mr Dick Prendergast and all concerned. What a year of achievements, for both individual and team.

Mass was celebrated by Fr. Tom, in his homily, spoke very wisely of doing small things in a great way. Mrs Prendergast had prepared the altar and Mr Prendergast the liturgy.

Our guest speaker was Sgt. Pat Fallon. He and his wife Patricia are both past pupils of the school. Pat spoke of his delight at being back in the school of his youth, the town of his youth.

He spoke to the student body of their value as people and how that value and life can be so easily lost at a young age through different forms of substance misuse and accidental death.

He spoke of the different ways one can achieve, and how there are so many opportunities and avenues open to young boys and girls in this present time.

Indeed, it was a pleasure to see both Mr Broderick and 50 Mr Doocey who has been very ill, present on the occasion.

John Frewen of 6th Year received a special achievement award but also an outstanding achievement award for winning the bronze medal at the National Science Olympiad.

McGrath, with a special prize for their win. Mr McGree of the English Dept. The Principal, Mr Britton, has every reason to feel proud of the school on such an outstanding occasion of success and achievement.

The ceremony finished with a presentation to Sgt. Pat Fallon and his wife. S A nother busy year has passed in Killusty National School. Yes, a year full of variety, helping us to implement our vision for Killusty National School that each child would be developed intellectually, socially, spiritually, physically and morally.

A Happy New Year to you all. We wish provided for the annual Killusty Dolores well in her new appointment Show, GAA matches and for events in and hope that many new members Grove during the year.

The Killusty will join the Fethard Unit during the Show committee made a presentacoming year.

Any one interestwelfare arrangements for Annual ed in becoming involved should conCamp in Lahinch where over 80 tact Civil Defence officer on members took part during the June holiday weekend - well done Rory!

We send out best wishes to all past Other events local members were members who served us so well involved in were the Tall Ships Race in Waterford, Red Bull Air Stunts down the years and we think of those event in Cashel and the who are no longer with us, may they Stonethrowers Rally held this year in rest in peace.

Patrick is a native of Littleton and now works as a librarian in Templemore. A very special night was held on Saturday 29th January in the Abymill Theatre when two presentations were made.

The first presentation, of a framed hunting scene, was to Tony Newport, as the Society wished to acknowledge his huge contribution over many years as the Fethard correspondent of the Nationalist newspaper.

Future historians will be using his notes as the authentic record of the goings-on in the Fethard area for the past 45 years.

Thanks indeed to Tony. The second presentation was to the winning author Patrick Bracken Joe Kenny making a presentation to Tony Newport, on behalf of the Fethard Historical Society, in recognition of Tony's 45 years service as local correspondent for the Nationalist Newspaper.

Then, on Sunday 13th February, the tenth Tipperariana Book Fair was held in the Fethard Ballroom and once again it was a great success.

Rudi, who ran the Poor Sinner Bookshop in Tipperary Town, was also a significant poet and he had died only seven days previously on the 6th February.

On the Saturday of the bookfair weekend, i. Saturday 12th, we hosted a lecture by Dr. Our records for the past year would not be complete without reference to the passing away of one of our greatest supporters, Neddy Delahunty of Market Hill.

On behalf of the Society we wish Fethard and Killusty people everywhere a happy Christmas and a healthy and peaceful The horse and trap or ass and cart and of course that old reliable, the push bike, were the accepted means of getting about.

Most went to England and she siphoned off our surplus labour for decades. In those early years, the Green Field, the Barrack Field, and the Market House were central to the lighter side of town life.

Up on The Green, the travelling showman pitched his tent and had his merrygo-round dancing at the crossroads. Fethard town, at the time, had all the appearance of having had a bad fright.

The selfless work of Rev. The rod for correction was used often and for the least provocation. I can still recall the names of all the doggies in Fethard in my time.

Religion was, to our young minds, something we could have well done without. There were endless devotions, where discipline and observance played an important part.

Later on, my seven years as an altar-boy changed all that and imparted an abiding interest in the Abbey monastery and the Augustinian Friars community.

A long avenue leading to a creepercovered manor house against a background of mature trees, formed a picture which the eye loved to dwell upon.

Augustinians lived in this house from until it was demolished in The old values of discipline and prayerful obedience were commonplace on church calendar days.

Of course we had to have a balance, where pride and bigotry, with a helping of class distinction, kept the pot boiling.

The convent foundation, with its commodious residence hidden within an old boundary wall of at least 10 feet high, had within its scope the ruin of the old church, with extensive gardens, stabling and farm yard, encircled by iron railings with gateway entrance.

Against the gable wall, burial-ground tablets huddled or at least rested together without any regard to rank or seniority. Among these relics of humanity there are, without doubt, persons of contrary interests and contradicting sentiments.

Here, as in tombs everywhere, lie sworn enemies. They drop every embittered thought and dwell together in unity, irrefutable witnesses to the brevity of life.

Pope How often as altar servers we watched with wondering eyes the adorning of the high altar and observed with childish glee, the activities of sacristan, Miss Nora Corcoran.

When dressed in her Sunday regimentals, we caught the aroma of candied mothballs clinging around her finery, looks of stern disapproval usually followed.

Nora was accomplished in all work to do with millinery, embroidery and floral design. Her handiwork is to be seen in the liturgical vestments, altar linen, and coverings still in use.

She always dressed the high altar with a plentiful yet chaste variety of ornaments. The sanctuary lamp of embossed silver looked splendid hanging by its chains and pulley, giving a display of ecclesiastical splendour over all.

Miss Brosnan, housekeeper, presided with precision and efficiency over the culinary duties, She was economic to a fault, and under her sage and experienced direction, many a roast went through a cycle of perpetual resurrection.

Suffice to say Miss Brosnan never smiled again. I thought the gates of 60 paradise had swung open, and all of us were transported into the realms of bliss.

Mission week attracted saints and sinners alike. The missionary dwelt in glowing terms on the communion between the saints above and the sinners below, making light the theories and philosophies of imperfect humanity.

So ardent were they in their aspirations and eloquence, they made the congregation respond with reverence mingled with awe. Stern judgment was administered in the confessional where egoism was mercifully forgiven.

Divine direction is not always from the top down, sometimes it is from the bottom up. Authors who have written with judgment make it known that, before the Anglo Normans came, we had no organised church, merely a number of tribal monastic foundations controlled by stewards appointed by the reigning families.

We see the ruins of these ancient piles that are still with us today: Templemartin, Kilnockin, Everardsgrange, Kiltinan, etc, Munster almost voted itself out of the rest of Ireland and went over church and state to the Normans on their arrival.

It was the only course which seemed to promise the bringing of the entire country within the Roman obedience, and to the great satisfaction of the reigning Pontiff.

They undertook the task of escorting pilgrims from the coast up to Jerusalem to protect them from the infidel, and to wage war against the laity in defence of the Cross.

They were introduced into England by Steven, The Temple Church in London bears memory to them. Augustine was founded at Fethard in the county of Tipperary by Walter Mulcot early in the fourteen century.

The order had considerable possessions in landed property before the grasping hand of Henry VIII and the suppression of the monasteries 62 changed everything.

The Augustinian Friars of Fethard having been thus robbed of their convent and property and thereby deprived of the very means of supporting a community, were reduced to the necessity of living apart from each other.

The ancient church continued in a state of ruin. After centuries of persecution the friars that remained obtained possession of their home.

Venerable members of the order in times past are, Rev. James Slattery, , assisted by Rev. Cornelius Funsey, Rev. Fathers John and Thomas Farrell and Patrick Tierney, who all lived and served the people of Fethard during dangerous times.

It is worthy of remark that the present church, which is called the Abbey, is identical to the original founded years ago.

The building having been thus reduced almost to a state of complete ruin remained in that condition for nearly years.

In the ruin came back into the hands of the rightful owners. The Rev. Nearly one-half of the Abbey was roofed soon after, and was again fitted for divine service.

Thus after an interrogation of nearly years the Augustinian Friars were back in business. In the year , a portion of the Abbey ground that was confiscated in the time of Henry VIII, was purchased by Rev Henry Allen, by whose zeal pews were installed and extra land secured.

This house is now the conventual residence of the community and is decidedly the most respectable house in the town. Augustine Thomas C.

E ven though we have no silverware to show for last season, we would still consider it a fairly successful year for the club. In our 35th year in domestic soccer, we were once more back in the premier division of the Tipperary Southern and District League.

Team manager, Chris Coen, assembled one of the youngest panel of players in the history of the club and a third place finish in the league, behind winners Clonmel Town and runners up St.

Michael's, was no mean achievement. The highlight of our season, however, was reaching the final of the Tipperary Cup, where we played St.

The game itself put our many supporters through the full range of emotions; we went behind to an early goal but played some excellent soccer to equalise before half time through captain Karl Maher.

The scores remained level after ninety minutes, and in extra time both sides had chances to finish the game.

Unfortunately, it was with virtually the last kick of the game that St. Michael's scored the all-important winner. This was heartbreaking for our team, who had matched their more illustrious opponents in every sector of the game.

Easter Monday W e are happy to announce that our appeal to the Magistrates of Fethard, in regard to the hundreds of Penny and Two-Penny summonses for Church Rates, served on the poor of that town and neighbourhood, was not in vain; they absented themselves from the Court House on the threatened "day of wrath", and thus proved their excerpt from Tipperary Free Press, 14th April contempt and abhorrence of the inhuman proceeding.

On Monday that fearless patriot Councillor Ronayne passed through this town on his way home from Fethard where he was professionally engaged to defend the people, should the Magistrates enter into the complaints above alluded to.

H ow well does passing time prove the fallibility of our memories? Step back a few years in our life and suddenly we realise that we have forgotten things that we should remember.

How many of the Newsletter readers, I wonder, can recall the events of ? Hardly any, I suppose, unless that year held special and particular memories for them.

Even those readers aged thirtyfive to forty will have no clear memory of that year. Though for those of us who have well lost the bloom and vigour of youth, it seems to be no more than a step or two back in time.

The festival would open with a fancy dress parade the very old will recall the carnivals of the s and 50's and the crowds that came into Fethard from the surrounding towns by train and bus on that great day.

It was planned that the parade would march about the town and on to the GAA field where there would be amusements, sports and Irish dancing.

For the duration of the week it was planned to hold all sorts of festive events, ballad sessions in pubs, tug-o-war, ladies football still a nov- Fethard Presentation Convent 1st Year Girls Class On the Friday evening of that week it was intended that the old and famous Races of Kilnockin would be held.

Who remembers the article on the Races which appeared in the Irish Independent in the early s and which was written by Andrew Finn from Dualla, Cashel?

Today no vestige of that course remains and even the stone-built grandstand has been demolished. It was intended that the Sunday of the festival be dedicated to children and to events in which they could actively participate.

But the Association was more than a summer festival. Its members worked actively at making the town attractive to visitors and at Christmas time.

It caused an illuminated tree to be erected on The Square in the Christmas of and had a Santa Claus to switch on the lights. Local Committees The Association was but one of the organisations in the town.

Fethard has always been well served by wellrun committees and bodies that work strenuously for the good of the town.

A friend of mine, a stranger to Fethard, once commented on the number of well-conducted committees that are to be found in the town.

My answer to him was that Fethard has had local government organisation since the middle of the sixteenth century and so committee work is bred in the blood of the locals.

In no way, by doing so, do I mean to decry their value or the good that they do, rather it is because most of them are still with us and known to all readers of this newsletter.

The Catholic Churches In an organisation was still very important in the lives of the people which today, sadly, has lost so much of its value that us old people stand back almost in shock.

Here I write of the Catholic Church which thirty-five years ago still held first place in the lives of the people and had not yet been buffeted and shaken by materialism and scandals.

At Christmas midnight masses were still being offered and in the report on the attendance was so large that it was noted in the local news report.

The Christmas crib in the Abbey church, always a great attraction locally, was featured on the 8pm and 10pm news bulletins on RTE on Christmas night.

The Catholic Church in Ireland was still a fundamental, active and vibrant body in the nation, a body that was still renewing itself in the early postVatican II years.

The terrible years of decline and debasement still lay ahead. In The Nationalist of 25 July a lovely photo of the renovated altar in the Augustinian friary was published.

The altar, which had been a gift of the Mockler family of Fethard 68 in , had been re-positioned to comply with the terms of the Vatican II directives.

The new sanctuary was designed by Messrs. Thompson and Partners, architects, of Limerick, and the work was carried to completion by Jerry Ryan, monumental sculptor, of Borrisoleigh, Co.

I remember the railway fondly. I especially remember the fair days, the GAA trains, the Fethard Carnival trains and loading beet at the station.

I used call to the station very often to collect the films for the cinema and bring them back the following day.

Pushing that cart up to the station was no easy task. You did, however, get in to see the pictures for nothing so that was reward enough!

Paddy would take on about ten of us depending on the number of pigs he had bought. The train used to leave the station at 6.

Usually there would be up to 60 or 70 pigs. What a job to control those pigs! Out under the archway and on to the Main Street and then the fun started.

All the time Paddy would be looking at his pocket watch worrying about his deadline. We were always in time for the train and our reward an English trupenny bit!

The labourers were worthy of their hire! Bro Paul Brennan, a past teacher of mine from the Patrician School on the Rocklow Road, penned an article of his work and experience since moving to Kenya almost 30 years ago.

Towards the end of the piece he reminisced about some of the students he had taught in Fethard and mentioned a few names, among them mine.

I wondered how he remembered me, as it was over 40 years since we last met. It must have been my red hair. The thought of visiting Africa was further fuelled by a chance meeting with Davie Fitzgerald at the Fleadh Cheoil in Clonmel.

I rang him the next day, we had a brief chat and exchanged contact details as he was heading to the airport to return to Kenya.

As the plane made its decent, little thoughts started to invade my mind. Would this adventure be a success? Would I know Paul at the airport?

Would he still be the same man who had made such an impact on my school days and on the parish in the early 60s. There he stood larger than life, older admittedly, just like us all.

White haired instead of black, but still the same Paul, with the exact same mannerism, smile and sense of humour. The memories came flooding back.

The meeting was a very special moment. Paul was accompanied by his fellow Patrician Brothers, David and Andrew. After a brief sojourn around Nairobi, where we planned to return, we headed for Mombasa on the Indian Ocean.

Five people in a Suzuki Jeep, which miraculously managed to stay in one piece for the three-week duration.

The km journey takes about 12 hours. The road was in very poor condition and littered with potholes but the trip was full of excitement for us.

Hordes of people walking, walking everywhere. School children head to school very early in the morning with happy smiling faces even though they survive on one bowl of maize per day.

Shanty towns where every day is market day and every resident is a trader. Incessant charcoal burning has led to a major deforestation problem.

The thought struck me that more damage could be done to the environment here in one day than we in Ireland could do in 10 years.

The old trucks coming out of the ports of Mombasa and tackling the long steady climb to ten or twelve thousand feet, belch out huge palls of black fumes.

However, to balance that they certainly make better use of the bicycle than we do. Some of the loads which they manage to get onto a bicycle are truly amazing.

Mombasa, a bustling town, was a perfect place to kick off our adventure. We swam in the Indian Ocean, sampled the local food and wine and took in all the tourist spots.

Paul was in his element. Using what Swahili he knew to best effect, the locals were amused when he could identify what tribes they were from.

He took great pride in telling them that he was a teacher from St. We asked if he could take us into Kibera the following morning and he agreed.

The journey through the township will live in my memory forever. Narrow dirt streets with mud shanty dwellings, thousands of people existing on morsels, children playing on open sewers with distant looks in their eyes, with Aids and malaria a daily companion.

I thought, can this be we are living in! The task is monumental with abysmal support from the so-called developed world.

But everyday is a day better. On Sunday we headed for the high country, Eldoret, in western Kenya, where Paul has lived and worked for some 30 years.

A long but pleasant journey with much better infrastructure. The further up the Rift Valley we went, and the higher we drove, the more fertile it became.

Magnificent lush valleys and beautiful scenery rolled out in front of us with forestry now becoming the dominant vegetation. We crossed the Equator on route where at noon you can stand on your own shadow.

Eldoret was like home from home. Paul knows everyone and is as popular around town as he was in Fethard.

Although Paul has retired from teaching for five years now, he is typical of the man, busier than ever.

He has just opened a new primary school and dispensary in Kabongo a place that would make Boolagh North look like the centre of the universe.

He is now working hard on building a secondary school so that the children will have a place to advance their studies. I had forgotten how driven he is.

How else could a young man from Nobber, who knew nothing about hurling, come to Fethard where we knew even less, and inspire us to a Munster Colleges title in One little girl said, the highlight of the trip.

Margaret I did. I know he had her primed loved the place, she had lots of before we got there. Our trip to books, copies and pencils which she Kabonga was complete when John gave to the teachers to give to the the caretaker invited us to his home children, who may not have been to meet his wife and three lovely chilable to afford even a pencil.

The joy dren. We were honoured to be guests on their smiling faces after getting in his house. Leading the way in academic and interested in the dispensary and had sporting achievements for years, it is, long chats with Sylvia, the local without doubt, one of the bestnurse, as she held her daily clinic.

They presented very useful equipWe have sat and watched the ment to the clinic that was very much Kenyans massing towards the front, appreciated.

You can be sure that many of them have come through this school. Members of the Kalenjin tribe such as Wilson Kipketer, Mike Boit, Wilson Boit, the Cheruyet twins and many more too numerous to mention have graced the athletic tracks of the world for decades.

Add that to the several national basketball titles and you get some idea of the progress of a small school built forty years ago in the middle of nowhere.

We spent a lovely evening with Paul, Colm and friends at the Keiyo View where we sat round the fire and had songs and stories from way back when.

It was interesting if only to see how domesticated wild animals can become if they are born and live with safari jeeps and minibuses looking at them all the time.

One wonders what the noble Masai People make of advancing civilisation which takes their grazing land in order to preserve wild life.

Bro Paul is visiting Ireland in Our team photograph still hangs proudly in his office. Thanks Paul for a memorable holiday, we will be back.

This year our computer system is being upgraded which will increase speed and efficiency. At our annual general meeting in December, two new directors were elected to the board.

Johnathon Gilpin was elected public relations officer for Chapter Our next A. M will be held in early December and we are First Steps Playgroup I t was another busy year for First Steps Playschool and great to welcome back old faces along with the new boys and girls who had not been before.

Our thanks to the Dental Department for visiting the Playschool again and involving us in their dental survey.

The children were all presented with toothbrushes and given a small demonstration on how to clean their teeth. Our Xmas party was a great success and thanks to Santa for coming to our party and giving the children their presents.

Our annual summer outing to Planet Playground was a huge suc- hoping for a representative attendance. R: Marian Gilpin. Without their valuable help and involvement these outings would not be possible.

If you have any queries, please feel free to call in to the Tirry Centre, or you can contact me on Tel: or The family comprised of three girls and five boys, and only one, Paddy, the youngest, took the popular emigration trail from an Ireland which at that time had little to offer in the way of employment.

The Dalton clan were prudent and hardworking, and none, except Paddy in New York, ever married. Two of the seven who remained at home had permanent positions.

Snaring and lamping of rabbits supplemented their income. The family thrived on the principles of honesty and integrity, and whilst they had only been exposed to basic Primary schooling, they were great admirers of education and never lost an opportunity of instilling that principle into us as we grew up.

They were indeed brilliant role models for us as young kids. Rural Electricification had not yet reached us, so there was no distraction from TV.

Studying was accomplished by oil lamp, and this would be rushed to a conclusion when we would hear Mikey arrive in the 26 by Tom Burke kitchen, and take his place near the open fire.

Because he had first-hand knowledge of the source of this new phenomenon, namely the Shannon Scheme at Ardnacrusha. With the country in the grip of a severe economic depression, Mikey had left Fethard in September , travelled by train to Thurles, connected with the Dublin-Cork main line, and changed at Limerick Junction for the short shuttle service into Limerick.

There he signed on as a labourer for the next three years in a workforce that averaged 2,, but reached a maximum of 4, at one stage. A short strike at the beginning of the project over wage rates led to Limerick city workers being paid 50 shillings per week.

On the right is Parteen Weir which allowed water down the Shannon river modation of course. The general feeling was that Siemens would have been willing to pay more, but were forbidden to do so by the Government, lest it have a destabilising effect in other areas.

Early in , the union agitation fizzled out and no further labour problems arose for the duration of the scheme.

There was a great variety of people working there, perhaps the most colourful being the group from the West of Ireland, who spoke only Connemara Irish.

Many of these had walked from home to get their jobs, as they did not have the bus fare. All the workers were men of incredible endurance, who thought nothing of working 70 hours per week.

Keeping clean was a problem; some would wade fully clothed into the Shannon, even in the depths of winter, and wash the dirt and grime from their clothes.

Others would gather around the temporary power station on a Sunday, where hot water was pumped out from the generator cooling system, and wash their clothes in that.

The meals served in the canteen consisted of half a pint of tea, ten ounces of bread and two ounces of butter for breakfast.

Same was served for tea with addition of jam. Lunch consisted of half a pound of lean meat, vegetables, and a pound and a half of potatoes, with two ounces of bread.

Because of the heavy work, the men felt the need to supplement these rations, and several fish and chip shops sprang up around the camp.

Whilst in docks to facilitate unloading of the Germany, he pursued with Siemens materials arriving from Germany, the concept of harnessing the with the power being supplied from Shannon and obtained the support the local Limerick City Electric Co.

Any materials weighThe contract, ing over 50 tons had signed between to be unloaded in Siemens and the Irish Dublin.

To move government on 13th materials to August , was for Ardnacrusha, a rail5. It is diffifrom the docks to cult for us now, 80 the site, the remains years on, to envisage of which are still visiwhat a gigantic engible today.

A portion of for local supply. The fall washing plant, a saw of the river, about mill, stores, and In the background, derricks for ft, would be used small laboratory, drop-hammers, used for boring to turn the generators holes to receive the blasting plus a plant for makat Ardnacrusha, with charges.

In the foreground, working oxygen which the diverted water ers used compressed air hammers was used for weld- to break up rock already blasted.

Shannon at Parteen. The Shannon Scheme was the Newspapers of the time, with a cerbrainchild of Dr. Thomas tain amount of journalistic hyperMcLaughlin, a lecturer in physics at bole, described it as the eighth wonUCG, supported by the Minister for der of the world.

McLaughlin obtained a ed a less adventurous firm than degree in electrical engineering in Siemens. Yet the Germans got most his spare time, and had gone to things right, and the complex probGermany to work for Siemens for a lems were solved efficiently and 28 expertly.

Unfortunately, they suffered a financial loss on the project, rumoured at one million Irish Pounds.

However, they recouped their losses by using the techniques in other parts of the world to good effect.

What surprised us most of all about the information Mikey trotted out was that it requires 15 tons of water at a head of 95 feet to keep a 1Kw electric fire heated for one hour.

But if he stuck closely to the facts in recounting the technical data, I can see now that Mikey took great liberties in the stories of the people involved.

At that time, of course, we took everything as fact and marvelled at the following accounts. He spoke in his native tongue, and the assembled workers shook their heads to indicate their lack of understanding.

A colleague, who spoke both languages, communicated this to the engineer. The story I like best is one remembered by my brother, Denis.

Mikey recounted that he was alone digging a trench one day, when a German engineer approached him.

Relations between the Irish and German workers were very good. In July of , on a wet and windy day, President W.

Cosgrave formally opened the intake gates at Parteen Weir, allowing the waters of the Shannon into the headrace for the first time.

The canal was not actually flooded by the President, as this process extended over several weeks to enable the engineers to test the embankments.

Both the Irish and German flags were flown at the Weir, and as the President operated the switch which opened the intake gates, sirens rang out and the No 2 Army Band played the national anthem.

Later, a group of German workers sang the German national anthem. On 21st Sept , electric current was first delivered into the National System, known at that time as the Leinster Loop, and Siemens made final handover of the project on 24th October On January 25th, , due to repairs and refurbishments at other plants, Ardnacrusha took its place as sole generating source for the National Network.

The dream of power from the Shannon had become a reality. The contribution of people of the calibre of Mikey Dalton from Fethard will never be forgotten.

Was Mikey present for the final events listed above? He had returned to Fethard some months earlier, despite according to himself repeated offers of extension to his contract, and considerable increase in remuneration.

Indeed, 30 with a twinkle in his eye, he went on to say that the Germans were more than anxious for him to take over as the first general manager of the famous Hydro Electric Plant, an offer which he believed was fully endorsed by the Irish Government.

To sing the story and praise the glory Of that wondrous project, the Shannon Scheme. The following article was supplied by Michael Hall, Kyle, Drangan.

The article was printed in the Fethard Notes section of The Nationalist on 26th Aug J ust some eight hundred yards, on an eminence, to the east of Fethard, is all that now remains of this once imposing edifice.

In Saturday's Nationalist was printed a sketch of the siege of Fethard by Cromwell, and its capitulation and article of surrender by Sir Pierce Butler, the governor.

In this state it remained until the 15th inst, when the west wing fell with a thunderous thud, making the stone resound in the streets of Fethard.

What wondrous mortar was used in the building of those old castles! The stones will smash before the mortar gives way. Pieces upwards of 30 tons were hurled a distance.

There was a large attendance and competitors came from all over the country to compete. It was a large, testing course and the windy weather made it difficult for some of the dogs to hear.

However, the rain stayed away and all enjoyed a good competition. Denis Birchill former National Champion came back to defend his claim on the cup after winning it last year and much to his delight he succeeded.

The organiser of the event, Dan Morrissey, would like to sincerely thank all those who worked at the venue or helped in any way to make the day a success.

O n a recent visit to Fethard, going down the old familiar tracks, my mind wandered back to life as it was in the s.

It was a simple, uncomplicated life. They say that what you never had you never miss. We were never bored and were content with the simple things.

One of the things that amazes me today when I speak to children in schools, is the amount of money that is spent on them.

They must have all the latest technological toys that cost an absolute fortune. The Game Boy has been overtaken by the Nintendo D.

Hold on, these have now been superseded by the Game Cube and X Box. This wonderful device not only plays games but also movies.

Our games were much simpler. Of course, we had our cards too. Having taken out the gold foil and inner card, we flattened the outer case.

We would kneel on the kerb and flick a card towards the wall. We were very proud of our cards, especially if you had a good collection of Gold Flake.

For some reason, we believed these were better gliders. This would be replaced, in time with the spinning top season.

That must have been soon after Easter, as we would use the colourful foil from the Easter Eggs to decorate the top. We would have races down The Green with our tops, stopping now and then to replace the bootlace as it slipped from the stick.

To stop this from happening, we had to put a groove in the stick. We also had to keep the metal tip of the top nicely polished, to help its smooth travel.

Skipping was a very popular activity in the road. When I now think of the rhymes that went with the skipping, I feel that today, most of them would be politically incorrect.

Stamp collecting is also a rare hobby today. Is this just an Australian thing, or is it more widespread?

I suppose with the coming of e-mails, less and less letters are sent. Of course, we had the cinema, and the Sunday afternoon session was a must.

Apart from the Batman trailer, there was also the main feature, where we would get glimpses of life in well-to-do American homes.

We became experts at making dry stonewalls. Fr Hogan found us building one day and came to the convent the next day to explain the dangers of building such high walls without support.

We just modified our designs. One day, Jo Barrett brought us a gift of crockery. We thought these were just wonderful.

As we grew older, our summer time activities changed. A daily visit to Newbridge was the highlight of the summer.

I would bring back a bottle of water for my father from the Spring Well in the grounds of Grove House.

Was it always sunny and warm, or am I remembering life with rose coloured spectacles? Summer evenings were filled with games of rounders outside the Fitzgeralds.

These games became very competitive at times, with disagreements over boundaries, hits and misses.

However, we liked the game too much to let our evening be spoiled, so we would agree to disagree and start again. I often wonder how a window was never broken and why no one ever complained.

Maybe they were protecting the windows! Who knows? I only remember them encouraging us and cheering a good run.

Are the children today missing out? I think so, but then this is a sign of the times. They keep them safe by buying all these expensive games to keep them from getting bored.

There are a lot more cars about, so games we played like skipping, spinning tops and rounders can no longer be played on the road.

The modern house has a very small backyard, so it is necessary for parents to take children to sporting venues for organised events.

We play every Wednesday evening in the Tirry Centre, which has long been the home of the bridge club. It is a warm and comfortable venue, convenient for everyone and we break for a cup of tea and a chat halfway through the evening.

Our numbers have dropped a little in the last few years, so we would welcome new members and encourage as many as possible to take up the game.

Both were long-standing members of the club. Although her illness prevented her from playing as much as she would have liked in recent years, she continued to support the club and played whenever her health permitted.

As a partner and an opponent, she was always courteous and encouraging - especially to beginners, and her unfailing good humour and courage were an inspiration to all.

Both will be sadly missed. John; Club Champions, for which the Hayes trophy is presented: Betty Walsh and Brigid Gorey; Individual Champion, for which the Dick Gorey Trophy was presented for the first time: Betty Walsh; The Suzanne Opray Trophy, presented for the first time this year as well, was won by Nell Broderick, as the player who reduced her handicap by the most during the year.

The free nett sub was won by Brigid Gorey and Betty Walsh. On 9th November we held a charity night and donated the proceeds for the evening to the National Council for the Blind.

Committee: Kay St. May we take this opportunity to wish all bridge players and nonbridge players! Our club has gone from strength to strength over the years with an increase in members.

We had an early start as we had to be in Clonfert by noon for a healing service. We stopped off at the Templemore Arms for tea and scones en route.

Clonfert was a very busy place with pilgrims from all over gathered there. Having brought packed lunches with us we took our break at 1pm, 38 followed by mass at 3pm.

Dinner was very welcome that evening which we eat heartily. We all agreed that it was a very spiritual experience. Our monthly meetings were held as usual in the Tirry Community Centre which is an excellent venue, where all our needs are catered for.

This was preceded by mass in the Abbey Church. The committee worked very hard to make the day a memorable and enjoyable for everyone.

April saw us take a bus trip to Melleray, via the scenic route. It was followed by a lovely meal in Cahir House. All were dressed for the occasion in their Easter bonnets.

We held mass in the centre in May, which was followed by a lovely tea. June saw us take a trip to Adare, Co. Adare is a charming and quaint place and we had a lovely meal in the Woodlands Hotel.

The weather was beautiful. I recently had reason to have a small blemish removed from my forehead using 'liquid nitrogen'.

A three minute visit to the local doctor and a couple of zaps to the left temple did the trick, and I had to suffer a dull throbbing headache for only twenty-four hours before feeling back to normal.

However, I was amused a day or two later when a friend of mine reported that her young daughter had asked, on hearing my friend recount my experience, was the pain like 'brain freeze'?

And, when I heard the question, I had to admit that yes, that's exactly what it was like, brain freeze. You're probably wondering at this stage where this article is going and what it has to do with the Fethard Newsletter, but this above-mentioned episode jogged something in my memory, and gave me the subject for this article.

Going back more than thirty years, yes, I'm that old, I was one of very few children in Fethard who had the unique pleasure of tasting homemade ice-cream within a few seconds of it being made.

My grandfather, and later my father, used to make ice-cream for our shop and delicious ice-cream it was too. There were no invitations issued to come for ice-cream, it was a case of if you just happened to visit at the right time, you were the lucky one!

I remember being given a saucer and a spoon by my aunt and being sent to where the ice-cream production took place.

I also remember being told not to get in the way or to make any noise. I used to sit, quiet as a mouse, waiting on the steps of the stairs as work went on in the next room.

The icy steam used to rise out of the machine when the lids were lifted off, and also from the containers, they were so cold. And then, a few seconds later, I'd be given a big dollop of vanilla ice-cream on the saucer and back I'd go to the stairs to eat it.

The only thing is, the saucer used to get so cold that you couldn't hold it or keep in on your lap, and the spoon used to get too cold to hold or put into your mouth, and of course the ice-cream was sooooo cold you had to try and put it into your mouth and swallow it without any of it touching any of you don't try this at home!

Needless to say, I was told to wait a while and let it 'heat' opposite of all other meals, where you'd be told to let it cool , but also needless to say - I never did wait 'cos that ice cream was just too delicious to wait another second for it.

Inevitably, the brain freeze would follow on, but it was always worth it. I'm sure many of you readers will remember the ice-cream this article is about, it was on sale in the shop on Main Street for many years, until the machine broke down and the parts could not be sourced to repair it.

I'm still partial to a nice ice-cream, actually, all my family are, must be a legacy from those days waiting on the stairs.

We even have our own name for it 'gingine'. C oming into the early autumn months, as the evenings pull in and cooler temperatures return, oftentimes the discussion is, whether we had a good summer this year or not.

No matter what you believe, human nature will always come up with opposing views. Remember those three weeks together that the sun shone, temperatures rose and water was becoming scarce.

Is there a point to this discourse on the summer weather? Did anyone notice, that on every Wednesday night this summer rain was threatened or in fact it did rain, even though we may have had fine and bright days leading up to it, and indeed, on the following day.

That said, this past year for the new club has been bright, seeing a steady increase in members and we are now 22 strong.

A great boost this summer was acquiring new goal posts, thanks to the community field committee. There have been some very lively and very competitive games through the year and thankfully very few injuries apart from the odd bruised shin or ego.

Some people outside the club remain confused as to the whole idea behind it, probably because of its simplicity.

We are, more or less, a sports and social club, playing soccer each Wednesday night from 8pm to 9. No, we don't rush off to the pub straight afterwards, normally the pub gathering has been restricted to our AGMs, although a Christmas Party is definitely on the cards for this year.

After inspecting the village we went for a swim and had a few at the local hostelry. Afterwards we went for a stroll and found a Fun Fair, which we investigated.

I noticed a shooting gallery and went for a few shots. I duly returned and was given the gun, three pellets, and a target was put in place.

Having fired my three shots, the attendant said I had only two marks on my card scoring 20 and that was not good enough. One of my companions asked in an authoritative voice to see the card.

After a lengthy study he declared that two pellets had gone through the one mark and that I had scored The attendant accepted his decision and declared me the winner and presented me with the prize.

The locals were amazed and looked at me in a curious manner thinking I had accomplished the impossible! I could not disagree. I did not feel that I had done the impossible but that was the decision.

On Saturday we went to the golf club with the owner of our guesthouse. This was my introduction to golf, which I continued to play for years, winning numerous prizes, and finishing on a seven handicap.

After lunch on Saturday, as we were about to settle our account, we were told by the proprietor that it would be much cheaper to stay until Tuesday.

August ended on Sunday, so we would be paying the September rate from then on. We stayed and on Sunday evening went out to welcome home the Wexford hurlers who had won the All-Ireland.

Nicky died a few short years afterwards. We left for home on Monday evening and were very lucky to make it, as we had a slow puncture and no spare, which was also punctured.

There was nothing left to do but share the prize, which was a set of two brown delph teapots with a blue band on the top. The big one should have been given to the man who really won the competition by declaring that I had achieved the impossible.

But, if I gave him the big one he would realise that I did not agree with his verdict, so I kept the big one and we made our way home, delighted to be back in Fethard.

I liked to spend my leisure time in the open and engaged in shooting. On one occasion I shot a pheasant in Kilknockin.

I hit it and it landed in the ditch about yards away. My dog got on the trace and I heard her growling in the distance as she headed towards Rocklow.

The bark got very low so I decided to move on. On crossing the racecourse field, I looked back and saw my dog approaching with a pheasant in her mouth.

I gave Roxy a good pat on the head as she came up and dropped it at my feet. It was at least a half mile from where I first shot the bird.

The dog tracked the bird down and then brought it back overcoming several obstacles on the way. I shot a lot of wild birds afterwards, but never again did I shoot at the king of all birds, a cock pheasant.

A companion and I tried some grouse shooting on the bog and started from Laffansbridge. We found the going very rough with plenty of drains to be jumped.

After a time we noticed a green patch ahead of us. On coming up we saw a green island of about one hundred acres prime land.

It was really an amazing sight. When people lived in mud huts, he thought up a system for building stone houses and his system has been used down to the present day.

The system was: one stone on two and two on one for every second layer. If you notice a modern block built wall you will see the system in operation.

As well as being a participant in sport, I was also a keen spectator, interested in Gaelic, rugby and soccer. I also patronised horse racing and dog racing.

In Gaelic, I always had a ticket for the finals in the Cusack stand. There were five of us in the car. When we reached Kingsbridge one was snoring and the others followed him at intervals.

By the time we reached the Curragh all were snoring so I decided that I might as well join them and pulled well in off the road and joined the chorus.

I was awakened by one who yawned and stretched himself when he realised the car was stopped, thinking he was back in Fethard.

Of course, the whole town heard about our escapade. I patronised Landsdown Road for All Irelands and home internationals and always sat on a reserved seat at the wall in the half way line.

There were five rows of seats outside the wall on the half way and we stood at the back and just took a vacant seat when the match started.

We were never challenged because only half the seats were occupied. That is how I saw every match sitting in a reserved seat.

Aintree was another place I patronised, as it was the place to be on Grand National Day. We went over and I the local coursing meetings held told the man there was a runner from every week from October to near Clonmel and we were there to February.

We also kept a few racehorses and The official said he could not let us in had a few very good wins. We really were my favourite enjoyed the day hobbies but I was and I made my not lucky.

I could matches. Many of our varied, with as many downs as ups. I greyhounds made their way to tracks never made much money but always in England and Scotland.

It was very enjoyed myself. Of course, my life exciting and meant a lot of travelling. I regularly attended the almost 40 years of happiness.

I three-day national meeting in intend to continue to enjoy what is Clonmel every February, the Irish life, however long it will last.

How the academic year has flown, as we now progress into the autumn term of She is to speak on behalf of the issue the former Massachusetts senator long championed in Congress, and "remind Floridians of the president's leadership" on healthcare reform, according to the campaign.

It was two years ago today that the House of Representatives passed Obama's landmark healthcare reform measure. There are no plans for the president himself to mark the milestone -- he's traveling out West today to speak about energy.

But the campaign is, using local events such as the one Kennedy is attending to continue mobilizing supporters and reaching out to voters.

Kennedy's campaign foray also comes as Democrats are placing special emphasis on female voters. Vice President Joe Biden is also heading to Florida later this week for the second in a series of campaign speeches meant to frame the general-election choice for voters in the fall.

Kennedy, campaign trail, campaign trail, Marc Andrew Deley, healthcare reform, Florida. Did your bracket the opening rounds of March Madness?

Can it last through the Sweet Sixteen? After a weekend of upsets and who-dat matchups that echoed the chaos we've seen in recent years, the teams that made it to the NCAA tournament's fourth round are remarkable in one respect: An unprecedented number of them are members of college basketball's royal class.

The tournament's 16 remaining teams have won 34 titles between them. And it's not just one or two pedigreed schools: A total of 13 of the 16 have won the national title before, the most in any Sweet 16 field in history.

In fact, even without Duke and UCLA, eight of the 18 teams that have the most Sweet 16 appearances are still alive, including three of the top four.

But wait, there's even more bad news for the basketball peasantry. Nine of the 20 schools that spend the most on men's basketball are in this year's Sweet Plus, there are 92 active NBA players representing every program still in the dance, with the exception of Ohio, the only true Cinderella.

As fun as it may be to see a passel of serfs in their oddly colored rags taking on the sport's robed patricians, many basketball fans are secretly happy that the unwashed masses have been left outside the arena.

So here's a question: Is there something about having royal blood that can propel a team in the tournament?

It certainly doesn't hurt recruiting. Bob Hurley, the basketball coach at New Jersey's St. Anthony, said the kings of college hoops have an advantage because they're "brands" that top-tier recruits recognize.

He notes UCLA, which didn't make the tournament this year but has more titles 11 than any school , signed his top player this season, Kyle Anderson.

For title favorites like Kentucky and North Carolina , their success tends to be self-perpetuating.

Because these schools often advance to the tournament's late rounds, they benefit from more exposure.

Recruiting has changed a lot since the bluebloods ruled the kingdom, of course. Most elite recruits no longer grow up with dreams of playing for Kentucky or North Carolina, said Tom Konchalski, a New York-based high-school talent evaluator.

Instead, he said, "they grow up dreaming of playing in the NBA. This year's royal ascent has less to do with Carolina and Kentucky than it does the renaissance of Indiana and North Carolina State, two programs that squeezed out the usual mid-major darlings.

These two programs, located in two of the sport's heart-and-soul states, have seven combined national titles but just two Sweet 16 appearances in the last decade.

Indiana watched Butler, whose entire athletic department makes less in revenue than Indiana does on men's basketball alone, advance to consecutive NCAA tournament finals—including one in Indianapolis.

The state of North Carolina, meanwhile, is home to three of the last seven national champions except they belong to North Carolina and Duke.

Associated Press. These programs were turned around in opposite ways. Indiana hired coach Tom Crean in and faced a long road back. But he inherited enough raw talent that the team flourished right away.

Now N. State is the tournament's hottest team. Both the Hoosiers and Wolfpack have top-five recruiting classes coming next year, too.

And their next games against fellow aristocrats Kentucky and Kansas this week will be less a dance than a royal ballet.

A version of this article appeared Mar. So with remaining at the KFC Yum! Center and Murray State holding a five-point lead, its largest of the game, the Racers could taste the nectar they dreamed about taking a bite of in Phoenix later this week.

The Racers ran out the fuel that had brought them 31 wins in their first 32 games this season. Marquette, the No. Marquette won with a will-crushing run that was capped by a dagger-like 3-pointer from its best player, Jae Crowder his only trey of the game.

After a baseline drive basket by Jewaun Long to give Murray State the lead with remaining, the Racers made only two field goals the rest of the game.

Crowder, who right before the killer 3-pointer that gave Marquette a lead with remaining, had drawn a charge, knew the gravity of the moment, how big his play was.

With Murray State having gone frigid offensively, Marquette iced the game by making 7 of 8 free throws in the final Crowder persevered through a poor first half of shooting to lead the Golden Eagles with 17 points and 13 rebounds.

Darius Johnson-Odom also scored 17 for Marquette. Murray State, usually a strong 3-point shooting team, was miserable from long distance, shooting just 4-of Sixth-seeded Murray State, which entered the game as the only one-loss team in the nation, now has a all-time record in the NCAA tournament and remains without a Sweet 16 appearance.

Twice before this season, Murray State played in a game to advance to the Sweet 16 but failed.

In as a 14th seed, the Racers lost to eventual national champion Kansas, In as a 14th seed, the Racers were denied by eventual national runner-up Butler, Russ Smith had 17 points as Louisville held off New Mexico in a third-round South Regional for its sixth consecutive win to advance to the regional semifinals for the first time since Kyle Kuric added 10 points for the Big East tournament champions, who lost their first game of the NCAA tournament the past two seasons.

Smith made a pair of free throws for fourth-seeded Louisville , but Gordon answered with a tip-in. All Horse s appear in post position order.

The other visual, however, made perfect sense: Kentucky advancing to the Sweet 16, a place that is as much home for the Wildcats as Lexington.

Kentucky, the No. The Wildcats will play Indiana, which handed them one of their two losses this season, on Friday in Atlanta.

Since , the Wildcats have gone to 15 regional semifinals. They play defense. They play hard. I want them to have fun playing. I want to keep challenging them.

Kentucky had the upper hand virtually all night, with No. Iowa State hurt itself where it usually helps itself most — shooting from 3-point range — missing 19 of 22 attempts from deep.

White got his points 23 , but the Wildcats stymied the rest of his teammates by using their length to thwart the outside shots.

Iowa State guard Chris Allen, a transfer who played in two Final Fours with Michigan State, had a miserable shooting night, scoring 16 points on 6-of shooting, including 1-for from 3-point range.

The game got out of hand for Iowa State midway through the second half when Hoiberg was called for technical foul after jawing with an official following a Cyclones turnover.

A moment later, Darius Miller 19 points buried a 3-pointer for a lead and moments later, two Miller free throws made it with remaining in the game.

The free throws capped a frenetic run in a span of six minutes by Kentucky after the game had been tied Once the Wildcats took the large lead it seemed to liberate their players even more.

Marquis Teague 24 points and Doron Lamb 16 points hit 3-pointers then jump shot shots by Miller and Lamb again gave Kentucky a bulge with left.

Stocks soared to multiyear highs as investors welcomed a trifecta of positive signals on the economy from U. The Nasdaq Composite finished above the level for the first time since December , adding 56 points, to close at The Dow gained points to end at its highest level since May Jonathan Cheng has details on The News Hub.

The Nasdaq Composite Index surged 1. The Dow Jones Industrial Average jumped Getty Images. Investors started the day on a positive note after the Commerce Department said retail sales gained 1.

The gains held after the Fed took a brighter view on the economy, but made clear that officials plan to maintain a loose monetary policy despite those improvements.

The most powerful move came in the final hour of trading, after blue-chip financial company J.

Morgan Chase said the Fed had signed off on the bank's plan to raise its dividend and launch a new round of share buybacks. That was followed by announcements from several banks that they had passed the Fed's "stress tests.

He said investors were willing to overlook any concerns that the Fed may be less likely to step up its bond-buying plans, which some investors had expected after a Wall Street Journal article last week raised the prospect of further bond purchases by the Fed.

Investors have driven stock prices higher in recent years as the Fed launched bond purchases to lower interest rates and support the U.

Cippoletti said. Concerns over the health of U. Still, details continued to emerge after the close, including news that Citigroup, SunTrust Banks and MetLife didn't meet the minimum capital threshold required by the Fed.

Differing agendas and visions of the process can also be affected by cultural differences. Differences in socioeconomic status can lead to differing leadership styles.

These can be counterproductive if not managed effectively and may hinder collaborative leadership. As previously mentioned, there are numerous possibilities for conditions that could hinder collaborative leadership.

Those mentioned here are seemingly the most common. Similar to the answer to dealing with politics, empowerment is again the key to overcoming the possible negative effects of stakeholder differences.

Urban vs. Rural Collaboratives By and large, there seems to be little variation in the types of conditions that promote collaborative leadership in rural settings versus urban settings.

Like the participants themselves, there will always be some differences among initiatives no matter where they are. However, despite this assertion, there are some arguments for the case that rural initiatives face more difficulties, in the areas of service, collaboration, and leadership, than their urban counterparts.

Snavely et al. However, Sternweis and Wells maintain that these factors need not be detrimental to urban initiatives. Sweat points out that some urban projects face similar financial difficulties as many of their rural brethren.

However, a major advantage that urban initiatives have in this area is the increasing trend for local corporations to become involved and provide financial backing.

The existence of corporate-sponsored partnership in urban settings does seemingly give these collaboratives an advantage over those in rural settings.

Regardless of the setting, the real test of a collaborative leadership project is its ability to build capacity by empowering its stakeholders to achieve their vision.

The Collaborative Leader If the real test of a project is its ability to empower its participants, is there a certain type of person who is more likely than others to embrace a leadership role in this capacity?

Perhaps the most obvious answer to the question of what makes the best collaborative leader is someone who can promote all of the conditions previously discussed; someone who can undertake assessment, provide a vision, facilitate shared planning, provide resources and training, and trust their peers.

But what kind of person is most likely to do these things? Are there certain types of people more likely to engage in practices that facilitate collaborative leadership?

Indeed, their assumption is supported by some research. In a study conducted by Goldman and Kahnweiler, they found that successful collaborative leaders are more likely to have a high tolerance for role ambiguity and the stress related to it.

These characteristics are unquestionably commensurate with the conditions discussed previously that are most likely to promote collaborative leadership.

And we have examined whether these factors differ for certain settings and certain personality types. In this section, we will provide three case studies of actual collaborative movements.

These case studies will illustrate some of the aforementioned conditions and their outcomes. They will also underscore the importance of understanding the unique nature of each individual initiative.

Dementi-Leonard, , p. Representatives from the villages met in a series of meetings to discuss strategies to increase efforts of regenesis of the language, as well as educational and program support to maintain the efforts.

This case study strongly demonstrates several of the conditions that tend to promote and hinder collaborative leadership, including the need for assessment and shared planning, as well as cultural and political issues.

The project was led by the Tanana Chiefs Conference TCC , a consortium of 43 Athabascan tribal governments that acts as an agency to administer health and social service programs to native residents.

This was facilitated by creating a safe place in the meetings for community members to openly express ideas that would not have felt comfortable expressing in the presence of outsiders.

In other words, TCC did not seek initial input from community members and then disregard them once the project gained momentum.

Their input was valued all the way through the process. This, according to the members, led to empowerment. This case study demonstrates the importance for collaborative leaders to assess the past and current situations, facilitate shared planning by acknowledging and utilizing local expertise, and trusting in stakeholders to use their empowerment to work toward their goal.

Section 4: Conditions and Contingencies 41 Collaboration Among Rural Nonprofit Organizations in southern Illinois and the Mississippi Delta This case study presents a discussion of nonprofit organizations in southern Illinois and the Mississippi Delta region engaging in collaborative leadership efforts.

The conditions that the seven Illinois counties and six Delta region counties encounter include large expanses of land dotted with small towns that experience high rates of poverty and unemployment.

Yet, it is precisely these conditions that led the two regions to decide to collaborate. It was the lure of the pooling of their individually scarce resources that brought them together.

There could be some hesitancy for rural organizations to collaborate this way. After all, competition for already scarce resources is common in areas where the population is spread over a large geographic area.

However, these counties worked together to decide what resources to pool to the maximum benefit of everyone involved.

These practices would be too expensive and time-consuming for poorly staffed, poorly financed organizations to handle.

Instead, they decided to focus on more attainable collaborative efforts such as case management referrals, community issue assessment, and community planning.

This case study proves that, while rural organizations may sometimes face unique impediments, they can still create conditions which foster collaborative leadership and are certainly not lacking in innovative, competent leaders to carry this out.

More importantly, this case study exhibits that these leaders exhibit a sense of understanding for the factors that promote collaborative leadership.

Principal Leadership and Community Participation This case study explores how the leadership styles engaged in by principals of four middle schools relates to the community participation at each school.

This is an especially interesting case study because it provides examples of the conditions that both promote and impede the collaborative leadership of the stakeholders involved in these community organizations.

In this instance, that essentially refers to parents as opposed to a broad spectrum of community members. Also in contrast to his initial claim of parental inclusion, Mr.

Yo Wick Middle School Ms. The first meeting, for example, had been billed on paper as being an opportunity for community members to choose representatives for the Parents Advisory Council PAC.

Once in attendance, however, parents were told right away that Ms. No discussion was allowed and no formal vote was taken.

At every meeting throughout the year, Ms. According to Carr, statements from some of the parents speak strongly to the feeling Ms.

The interplay among the parents, the PAC advisory board, and the principal was noticeably different from the two situations above.

Evidence of this is seen in the following comment from one parent. Merrimack Middle School Ms. She expressed a desire for a shared vision and for all parents to become actively involved in the creation process.

The members of the council did not promote individual agendas. Summary These case studies serve as compelling illustrations of how many of the conditions discussed in this section can promote and hinder the process of collaborative leadership.

Every initiative has unique circumstances, to be sure, and must be understood vis a vis its own circumstances. However, those interested in collaboration should be aware that politics and differences among stakeholders are likely to emerge as impediments to collaborative leadership.

On the other hand, assessment of the situation, creating a vision, shared planning of the process, provision of resources, and trust are conditions which are more likely to promote collaborative leadership.

All of these elements foster an environment of empowerment. Empowerment, as this section has shown, is the most crucial factor in the facilitation of collaborative leadership.

Perhaps Bowers illustrates this best with the following credo. The report urged for a more focused initiative to develop leaders, observing a present lack of direction and intentionality in public health leadership development.

But while the literature and training programs may still be limited, there are many other fields of leadership study that might provide models to inform, shape and build vision for public health leadership development.

Many strategies and techniques from other fields were also born out of a dearth of attention to succession planning and leadership training, for the leadership gap is not partial to public health alone.

The struggle for leaders is widespread, and often thought to be a result of the increase in demands and changing role or charcteristics of the leader today.

The shift from authority focused leadership to collaborative and team oriented leadership has not been met with adequate leadership education and training.

Not only do critical leadership positions need to be filled as vacancies and restructuring occur, but also leaders with capacities and characteristics to meet the current challenges and innovations in the work place are essential.

In the field of public health, and particularly for those in the Turning Point Initiative, capacities for collaborative leadership development need to be in clear focus of any development plan They surveyed 35 organizations that had well developed leadership development programs.

They further narrowed the study to six organizations with the most innovative or strong leadership development processes. Ashby summarizes their key findings of best practices in leadership development programs through the following highlights: 46 Section 5: Leadership Development Strategies and Methods 1.

Leadership development does not stand alone. It must be aligned to the overall strategy of the organization. Senior-level executives with extensive line experience must be involved in the design of the leadership development program.

A model of leadership competencies is developed which is consistent throughout the organization and reflects the values of the organization.

Best-practice organizations develop their own leaders rather than recruit them from other companies. Action, not knowledge, is the goal of best-practice leadership development.

The leadership development process is a symbiotic tool of effective leadership. Successful programs are continuously assessed. These best practices give guidance to approaches and strategies for leadership development in public health.

The first question is outcome and skills oriented and taken up in another section, but the latter is important to articulate before a review of possible strategies and techniques is relevant.

During a discussion of the Turning Point Leadership Development Plan experts in collaborative leadership development suggested three levels to consider in nurturing sustainable leadership.

Level one is focused on the individual and the leadership capacity developed from within. The second level is focused on individuals working within an organizational context.

The third level broadens to the community. Collaboration becomes critical at this point as community members begin working across boundaries to stimulate change and solve problems.

The development process for collaborative leadership in public health must consider various venues that allow for an ever-expanding sphere of influence from the individual leader, to many leaders within an organization, to the broad leadership available in communities.

Adults as learners present unique challenges to any development process or program. Renowned education theorist Malcolm Knowles, who is considered by many as the father of adult education, provides several key principles for training or developing a learning process for adults.

Five foundational principles of his theory are considered essential for a vital learning experience Knowles, ; Adams, They can be summarized as: 1.

Adult learning should be an active, not passive endeavor. While lecture is important for information dissemination, adults tend to remember only 10 percent of what they hear Adams, Add visual and the learning jumps to 50 percent.

Add discussion and retention increases to 70 percent. Combine demonstration and visual with auditory and learning often increases to 90 percent.

Therefore, methods that provide for active participation will increase learning in adults. Section 5: Leadership Development Strategies and Methods 47 2.

The adult learner must relate to the training and the training to the learner. Adults bring a breadth of life experience to their learning that provides a richer frame of reference.

Training and development of adults will be more effective when this is taken into consideration. Learning is enhanced when it is purposeful and meets a need.

Adults will seek to apply what is learned immediately. Assessment to determine clear purpose and needs is foundational to this.

Learning is facilitated when adults share in their own goal setting. Selfdirected learning helps to personalize and stimulate interest in any training or development program.

Learning is enhanced when it draws on the expertise of the learner and is applied immediately. Optimal learning occurs when the learner in turn teaches what he or she has learned.

Strategies, techniques, and methods for leadership development that incorporate these principles will encourage greater learning and satisfaction in meeting desired outcomes.

Organizational Attitude and Leader Identification If Knowles assessment of adult learners is correct, a range of approaches in leadership development is requisite.

As best-practice competencies and skills are identified, an assessment of those in existent leadership and potential leadership needs to be performed.

In other words, the learning cannot stop with the learner but must be passed along to others in the organization if they hope to survive turbulent environments.

The literature implies that an organizational attitude of continuous learning and teaching provides optimal conditions for leadership development.

One artifact of this culture is the identification process of possible leaders. An example of this is the Sears company who seriously examined their succession policies and devised a process for identifying people who may be ready for leadership within the company They divided these employees into three groups, including those immediately ready for a leadership position, those who may become candidates in the next few years and those who are at least three to seven years away from leadership capacities.

One method for securing this assessment is through the degree feedback or review process Blodgett, ; Kaye, Peers, managers and reportees all contribute to create profiles of possible leadership capacities in the evaluated employee.

This feedback becomes the foundation for a personal 48 Section 5: Leadership Development Strategies and Methods development plan.

Since most entities experience their greatest need for leaders when it is too late, developing an organizational attitude that considers leadership identification and development critical at all times is one way to circumvent such a crisis.

General Electric is one such example of developing leaders as a core competency of their company. This map involves personal assessment, intentional coaching, and organizational structures to support leadership development as well as systems and processes that expect employees to further the development of others.

Job performance is not just based on strategies and delivery of goods or services; rather job performance is also judged by the ability to develop others.

This same bench strength is required in the human service sector as noted by 21 executive directors of nonprofit agencies in Baltimore Menefee, Responding to questions regarding the impact of turbulent times on the success of their organizations, three critical areas emerged: planning, management and leadership development.

Assessment Tools As mentioned earlier, degree feedback is one tool that has proven useful in leadership identification, assessment and development.

This full circle feedback process from all of the constituencies relating to a leader or potential leader gives depth and stronger validity to perceptions of skills and abilities.

This feedback can be used to create a development program to capitalize on already perceived strengths and correct areas of growth still required.

Frankel also suggests three keys to follow for success in using this tool as being: 1. One of the benefits of the degree feedback instrument is that it can be customized to the competencies, skills and goals of a given agency or leadership position.

The instrument was developed around those issues and coupled with a two-day program of training followed by coaching for honest communication.

What are the developmental implications of these perceptions? These definitions and competencies were then used to develop an appropriate degree instrument that helped form an employees ILDP.

This tool in conjunction with a leadership plan and action learning is one reason why the company moved in ranking from 12th among 13 major oil companies in to 1st in Another assessment that focuses primarily on leadership is the Leadership Practices Inventory developed by Kouzes and Posner This particular tool, which has psychometric properties reporting internal reliability and validity, has the advantage of providing consistent assessment across gender, ethnicity, and culture in addition to cross-functional organizations.

It also focuses on a conceptual framework that Kouzes and Posner developed through extensive interviews and case studies. It assesses five key leadership factors: 1 Challenging the process, 2 Inspiring a shared vision, 3 Enabling others to act, 4 Modeling the way and 5 Encouraging the heart.

Each of these may have specific appropriateness to certain situations. Used as self-information in a voluntary management development program, the IRS encouraged personal use of the data.

Guided by an ethic of voluntary participation in this self-assessment tool, the IRS program affirmed the following use of the assessment: Rather than suggest that people of a given type cannot possibly be successful managers, the participants learn that people of all types occupy managerial and non-managerial positions.

They learn that the data suggest that some behaviors might be more difficult for them than others, and that they could use that information to set goals for their careers and their personal growth Mani, , p.

Used as self-awareness then, the MBTI could assist leaders in their self-awareness and leadership development goals. This tool provides assessment of leadership styles in order to understand their suitability to certain functions required.

Used as both a pre-test, before training or mentoring, and then as a post-test, this instrument has the capability of measuring any changes in leadership skills.

Such information could be used in any ongoing development plan. It is not easy to shift from manager to SuperLeader. Used in group discussions, these methods allow for shared learning that can enlarge individuals 50 Section 5: Leadership Development Strategies and Methods thinking about leadership.

Whatever the method, self-awareness and informed goal-setting seem foundational to any leadership development plan. A combination of approaches seems wise in order to provide the greatest reliability and breadth of information from which to develop a personal leadership growth plan.

On a final note, assessment and personal awareness is not just about inventories and tangible tools. During this interview project, W.

Brian Arthur articulates a helpful model of the stage sequencing in creating personal awareness or knowledge that will jettison leaders into a transformational understanding of themselves and their contexts.

Jaworski and Scharmer expanded this three-stage sequence by identifying seven practices that make up the process of leadership in the New Economy.

Although described sequentially, they are sometimes experienced more simultaneously. These practices are: 1.

Listen to your call 2. Observe, observe, observe: become one with the world 3. Uncover intent and surrender into commitment 4. Allow the inner knowing to emerge Illumination 5.

Crystallize and broadcast intent 6. Act in an instant 7. Work: execute, learn, let go Jaworski and Scharmer, , p.

While tools and surveys are invaluable in the assessment and personal awareness stage foundational to leadership development, these authors encourage a condition of the heart and mind that allows for deeper knowledge and change.

It is touted as a cost-effective method of leadership development because of its focused results.

Coaching may take several forms in leadership development plans. Verlander suggests three types of personal coaching situations It allows for reality based feedback and action planning.

Krayer, In this case the coach helped a manager identify problems contributing to an overall lack of quality in customer service.

They then devised an intervention plan that required an emphasis of leadership rather than management skills in a department that had lost vision.

In other cases, experts coached work groups who were peers Donaghue, ; Schmidt, The idea is to maximize the use of personal assessments such as a degree feedback instrument and others mentioned through coaches.

The Allstate Corporation, which is the largest U. A degree instrument was utilized and participants identified coaches who helped them develop intervention and development plans.

Improvement in this area was deemed necessary for any further advancement. In this case the expert coach focused on critical events that had eroded healthy work relationships.

These incidents were re-enacted, critiqued and role-played for new behavior development. That way the intervention can be focused and, through hard work, stimulate real leadership change.

Peer coaching also appeared as a method in the literature. In a case study of the nurse manager role, internal peers in cross-functional leadership roles partnered with the nurse leader to provide specific coaching in higher function operational demands Schmidt, In the earlier sited case of communication skill development in a Scandinavian hospital, peer coaching was a primary method for learning Fankel, Team participants were paired with coaching buddies who provided critical feedback and insight to one another in communication skills development.

The case conclusion noted that the strength of this method in this program was the already high functioning nature of this team.

Had the team not know each other so well already, the ability to honestly coach a peer might not have been so high.

Finally, mentoring has served useful in several settings where individual at various levels of expertise can be paired to benefit the person with lesser skills and experience.

Not only did pretest and post-test scores show an increase in 13 percent of leadership effectiveness for those involved, but leadership style flexibility also increased 22 percent.

While the program began with very little structure, Stromei soon noticed key factors that contributed to the success of the mentoring and created a model.

The model she proposed creates a more formal mentoring program for an organization. They include: 1. Friendship, Understanding and Nurturing Stromei, , p.

Mentoring has also been successfully used within the broader community related to women and long-term care or nursing home care.

Women comprise the largest population of those in long-term care and those who are the caregivers of residents in long-term care Flippen, Yet issues of consumer choice, health insurance, and wages of caregivers have been poorly addressed.

The Coalition for Women in Long Term Care COWL implemented a grassroots mentoring program that included the local, state and national boards of leadership dealing with these issues.

Their hope is to stimulate healthcare reform by increasing the conversations between informed, mentored women and legislators.

Distance Learning Web-based Instruction WBI and coaching has the advantage of linking experts and developing leader when they are separated by distance and time.

On-line courses even make international learning possible. Besides providing an international learning experience at a lower cost, this program helped nursing leaders develop global perspectives that will serve them well in a globalized world of health.

Although the pilot course experienced numerous setbacks through technical difficulties, students found it provided a unique experience in collaboration that allowed them to work within their own time frames.

Not only were collaborative leadership goals exceeded in learning outcomes, but technological skills were increased as well.

Virtual coaching provides a tremendous opportunity for continuous learning. It makes it possible for some to finally pursue development goals.

Workshops, Retreats and Comprehensive Training The meeting and workshop oriented training is common to most leadership development programs.

Affirming Malcolm Knowles adult learning principles, the literature suggests that the best of leadership training programs utilize many different forms or venues for learning.

Combinations of lectures, discussion groups, role-plays, simulations, personal assessment and reflection, action learning projects and coaching are utilized often.

The study began with an assessment phase utilizing an open-ended staff inventory regarding leadership training needs. Once training needs were clearly identified, the second phase of developing training materials was initiated.

A 12 monthly-meeting focused curriculum was created. It used a variety of training methods including personal study or reading; focused exercises including the development of mission statements and problem Section 5: Leadership Development Strategies and Methods 53 statements; group projects with peers; discussions and role-plays on key topics such as participative decision making, goal setting, diversity issues and conflict resolution.

The third phase involved the evaluation or validation of the curriculum. A follow-up plan that included instructor and peer feedback several months after the curriculum is completed promoted retention and application of key concepts.

Retreats particularly provide a condensed amount of time to go deeper and explore core competency issues. Human emotions are integrated into the executive program in order to delve into such thorny issues as authority, competition, teamwork and acceptance of others.

The Public Health Leadership Institute PHLI goes further in providing a rich variety of events and features of their training program for senior public health officials.

This successful one-year program included personal study, leadership self-assessment, seminars which included teleconferencing and computer conferencing, peer coaching, a week long retreat and action-learning projects Scutchfield et al.

This multiple point training offers variety to enhance the continuous learning concept. Another approach to a comprehensive training experience is that offered in the field of medical education.

Offering a two-year fellowship program, cluster committees form the core experiential learning opportunity Thomas C.

Students awarded fellowships learn over a two year period about involving the community in their own health care.

The cluster committee becomes the vehicle for this collaboration and the learner is integrally involved in its formation, goal setting, maintenance and leadership development.

This practicum oriented approach to leadership development provides a realistic learning setting that bridges the gaps between community service and classroom academics.

As such it involves the learner as an active participant who finds and uses appropriate information to solve problems.

The trainee is presented with learning methodologies that foster exploration, questioning, hypothesizing, planning, testing and evaluating.

Experiential learning is based on two phases. The first is the experience and the second is reflection of the experience.

It is disciplined in that learners follow a series of steps in a specific sequence. During this reflection the learner looks back critically at the experience and gains new insights which provide the basis for a change in future behavior.

Cusins, , p. In a program to foster team building in the U. The exercise simulated a real-life dilemma that factory workers may encounter.

Such information is invaluable for true change when followed up with reflection and action plans. Stumpf, Watson and Rustogi discuss the life-like experiences of global leaders learning through microworld simulations such as Foodcorp and Globalcorp.

As daylong events, the Foodcorp and Globalcorp simulation allow for extensive debriefing and exploration of changes needed to meet similar real-life situations.

Personal reflection, peer feedback and discussion set the stage for self-awareness and action planning for change.

Storytelling is another form of experiential learning and information production that can stimulate change. During the second stage of their collaborative work, storytelling allowed staff and community members to explain and understand their new values.

Concurrent case studies were written that stimulated dialogue that helped make sense of how and what to do within their new framework.

On-the-job experiential learning is one of the most natural venues for personal growth. Although riskier than simulated settings, application is real and motivation for improvement is high.

The Franciscan Health Systems of Aston, PA sought to develop and prepare leaders at every level of their organization.

A collaborative effort involving joint meetings, brainstorming, problem solving and action planning was established with peers and cross-functional units to focus on the reduction of admissions time in emergency care.

Through shared governance and ownership of the problem and solutions, they were able to implement change together that greatly reduced elopement rates.

Leadership was shared and learning occurred simultaneously. Frankling Hospital in Baltimore also provides a case example of leadership development on the job Wood, The nursing leadership desired to create a more coordinated approach to care by integrating physician and nurse activities, involving the patient more actively, maintaining professionalism of all roles and keeping workloads stable but quality strong.

Physicians and nurses created a case management pilot project through dialogue. Once the collaboration was established, continuous training including two-day seminars were held.

Local nursing schools, case managers, and interested community professionals interested in the program were included.

Both patient and care team professionals reported increased satisfaction from the collaborative practice model developed and learned together.

Section 5: Leadership Development Strategies and Methods 55 Action Learning Much is being written and spoken about the use of action learning in leadership development.

The process followed in action learning includes experiential learning, creative problem solving, acquisition of relevant knowledge and co-learner group support Cusins, , p.

Action learning integrates one of the adult learning principles mentioned earlier. In some instances, action learning might be considered service learning as in the case of academic institutions.

Volunteer mentors served to guide the teams in addressing clinical collaborations and decision-making. Topics and real world settings provided students with the opportunity to make a contribution and learn from a real life setting simultaneously.

The new curriculum increased the confidence of the students as they enter the clinical work world and the mentors who received benefits from their involvement were very satisfied with the projects.

Leaders choose and describe their chosen projects in preparation for the on-site training week. They are grouped according to project categories in order to consult and collaborate with each other during their training.

Computer conferencing by teams continues the consulting and collaboration through the project completion. Global leadership is seen as their greatest requirement for continued strength and growth internationally.

Developing leaders throughout their international organization is top priority. Leaders were assigned a six-member team that traveled to a global site to address a particular issue.

Together they created a strategy and plan utilizing specific concepts and tools they had learned prior in the training.

Implementation of the project was not expected, as priority was placed more on expanding and adapting skills through focused experiential learning.

Large-Scale Leadership Development Concerns arose at the conference on Collaboration and The Turning Point Initiative Larson, regarding the need to be developing larger numbers of leaders with collaborative skills.

Practically check this out, we read more conclude that public health practice has experienced, and continues to experience, the changes that are occurring at a broader level. In that year of a Fethard continue reading had the rare honour of having her funeral Mass celebrated in the Augustinian Abbey here. The Augustinians first came to Fethard years ago in From the case of a collaborative involving 40 New England hospitals working to reduce adverse drug events, to the university community collaborations set to change curricula, to the collaboration between schools and social services, the importance of including all stakeholders is repeatedly documented. In the hospitals, it was the inclusion of a physician in addition to a pharmacist check this out nurse that made the teams more likely to be successful.

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